THE ESSAY OF BEHAVIORISM THEORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

DINA   NOVITA   WIJAYANTI

2003512008

FIRST REGULER ROMBEL SEMARANG

THE ESSAY OF BEHAVIORISM THEORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

               As the students of English Education Department , it is important to us to know the kinds of approaches or theories related language teaching and learning. In this case, some approaches  have constructed in teaching and learning process. All of the approaches are conducted in teaching learning process in order to get the positive effect for the students and the teacher itself. The use of the approach itself is to improve or increase the students ability in learning. Although there are some theories that still used some conventional methods that make the students uninterested in joining the teaching learning process. So the role for the teacher is to apply appropriate approach based on the condition of the students in order it can make the students are interested to learn.

       In this case , I would like to discuss about behaviorism that is explained in detail through history of behaviorism , definition of behaviorism ,the characteristics of behaviorism, the principles of behaviorism , the strength and weaknesses of behaviorism, the application of behaviorism in ELT, the differences of behaviorism with other theories.

HISTORY OF BEHAVIORISM

          According to Demirezen (1988:135)  background  of behaviorism growth is basically, behaviorist theory is psychology theory that was founded by J.B Watson  as a reaction to traditional grammar. This theory  was supported by Leonard Bloomfield, O.N ,Mowrer, B.F Skinner and A.W Staats, Behaviorism grown in America as a new approach of psychology by making a particular  emphasis on the importance of verbal behavior. The major principle of  behaviorist theory is the analysis  of human behavior in observable stimulus-response  interaction as the association between them. Thorndike was the first behaviorist who explored the learning area in order to form the association on particular process of behavior and the consequence itself. There were kinds of behaviorism  that  the behaviorist theory of stimulus response learning was developed in operant conditioning from Skinner. He assumed that all learning to be establishment of habits as a result of reinforcement and reward. On the other hand, the other behaviorist that was assumed by Pavlov that stimulus  and response work together. The example of behaviorism based on Pavlov was children developed to learn  the language of their social surroundings naturally whose importance both over language learning and teaching must never be underestimated .In this respect of behaviorist was in fact that human and animal learning is process of habit formation. A highly  complex learning task, according to this theory may be learned by being broken down into small habits. These are formed correct and incorrect response, are rewarded or punished ( Hubbard Jones and Thornton Wheeler, 1983;326 as cited in Demirezen (1988:135)). Thus, it is clear that the acquisition  of learning in infancy is governed the acquisition of other habits.

THE DEFINITION OF BEHAVIORISM

         According to Waltman (2003) Behaviorism is a theory of animal  and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors. While, (as retrieved in  http://www.learningteaching.info/learning/behaviour.htm)  behaviorism described as developmental theory that measures observable behaviors produced by a learner’s response to stimuli. From those definitions of behaviorism from two experts , I can infer that  behaviorism is a theory that measures observable behavior that are produced by the learner to respond to the stimuli. The response to stimuli can be reinforced  with positive and negative feedback to condition  the desired behaviors. Reward is the positive feedback that is given to the learners because they can response to the stimuli correctly For example reward can be realized through stikers, treat , food  and shopping, While punishment  is the negative feedback that is given to the learners if they can’t response the stimuli well.  For example for the punishment such as  no play time, extra chores and taking away item. There are some of the key consequences of behavior.  The reward can strengthen the behaviors in order  the learners can increase the behavior. For instance, giving praise to promote good behavior. While, punishment can decrease  the behavior in order the learner don’t want to do it again . For instance, if the child  get extra chores or no recess.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIORISM

         According to Tomic , Behaviorism attempts to describe , explain  and influence behavior. In this section, I would like to describe the features of behaviorism.

  1. According to behaviorist,  the most important causes of motivation for behaviorism lie outside rather than within the individual.
  2. The dualistic portrayal of mankind which distinguishes between mental processes and observable behavior is scientifically unproductive. For example” Mary loses control of herself because she is aggressive”. This sentence means something. Mary is the cause of their observable behavior. However, the only way  to detect the inner characteristics serving to explain behavior in such pronouncements is to observe this behavior. We see that the cause and effect have  the same source.
  3. The scientific study of mankind should be restricted as much as possible  to directly observable quantities.
  4. Explanations of human behavior are simple in principle, as behavior arose out the elementary learning processes, but in practice however , behavior is quite complex. Both the behavioral  patterns of and the outside influences that effect human beings  are complicated.
  5. Man is generally a shallow  and imprecise observer of both his own  and others’ behavior. The dualistic portrayal of mankind forces him to propose all sorts of dubious explanations.
  6. The attempt to influence behavior must be preceded by a thorough behavioral analysis. If the attempt to influence behavior fails, then the analysis is incorrect or incomplete and must be revised.

THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING  OF BEHAVIORISM

         The behaviorism is primarily associated with Pavlov (classical conditioning)in Russia and J.B Watson. While, B.F Skinner in United  States(operant conditioning). The two types of possible conditioning that  are  classical and operant conditioning are explained as follows.

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

          Ivan Pavlov is brilliant Russian Behaviorist. He studied about behaviorism (reflexes) for thirty years and was considered  to be the father of conditioning theory. He concerned in the concept of classical conditioning behaviorism. Classical  conditioning is the process of relax learning. Moreover, the condition tends to use the behavioral training naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. According to Waltman (2003)the example of  classical conditioning is Pavlov found that providing food to a dog would set off a response by an elevated salivary flow. He controlled the situation by ringing a bell each time food was given to the dog. He discovered that he could make the saliva flows just by ringing the bell, although food was not supplied. The bell , being the secondary stimulus, was so directly connected with the food or primary stimulus that the bell  brought about the salivary flow or primary response. The relax was triggered by a new stimulus. He called this “ a conditioned reflex”(Rippa, 1996 as cited in Waltman(2003)). A  learner  behavior based on experience became known as “classical conditioning”.

  The principles of classical conditioning (as cited in Cherry)

  1. Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response  is to be strengthened.
  2. Extinction is when the occurrences  of a conditioned response decrease or disappear
  3. Spontaneous  Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after  a rest period
  4. Stimulus Generalization is the tendency  for the conditioned stimulus to appear  similar  responses after the response has been conditioned.
  5. Discrimination is the ability  to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

John B Watson(1878-1958)

       John B. Watson is the important contributor to classical behaviorism . He studied the behavior of animals. Watson’s approach was influenced by Ivan Pavlov who concerned in Classical  conditioning. Classical conditioning is the process of reflex learning. Watson’s approach emphasized in the role of stimuli in producing conditioned responses. For this reason, Watson may describe it  as an S-R(Stimulus-Response) called ”reflexes”. He believed that one’s surrounding and background are much more dominant than genetics in the determination of human behavior. He thought that one’s surroundings were the main stimulus that established behavior. He considered that if he could be in charge of a child’s surroundings, he could shape the child into any type of person he  sought. In his research similar to Pavlov’s experiment with  a dog’s digestive. Watson trained a child to fear a rat. When the child came in contact with the rat aloud noise was made and the child was startled. This led to the eventual fear of furry animals. Watson believed that if he could make a child fear a rat, then he could create any situation and response that he desired( Waltman, 2003).

B.F Skinner(1904-1990)

           B.F Skinner is American behaviorist whom develop a system based on operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the idea  that we behave the way we do  because this kind of behavior  has had certain consequences in the past. In operant conditioning there is reinforcement of the behavior  by giving reward or punishment.

   Positive reinforcement shows by giving reward to increase the response.

   Negative reinforcement shows by giving punishment to decrease response.

The greatest contribution of B.F Skinner was known his studies of how rewards and punishment influence behavior(Fisher,202 as cited in Waltman :2003). He taught that reinforcement follows behavior. Human behavior is developed by previous situations and reinforcements. Behavior enlarges in areas that are positively reinforced, therefore, we should be controlling, creating events that reinforce desired behavior. Skinner used a tool which was known the ”Skinner box”. This box was used to observe behavior in tested situations  and for operant conditioning experiment. For example Operant conditioning( as cited in Strandrige) is the mouse pushes the lever and receives a food reward. Therefore, he will push the lever repeatedly in order to get the treat. It means that the mouse can response to the stimuli well so, the  mouse can get reward in the  form of treat .Through his experiment he concluded that behavior could be changed by providing reinforcement based upon the response.

The principles of operant conditioning (as cited in Demirezeen(1988:137))

  1. Behaviorist theory dwells on spoken languageà learning language  is primarily what is spoken  and secondarily what is written.
  1. Behaviorist theory is the habit  formation theory of language teaching and learning, reminding us the learning of structural grammarà Language learning concerns us by “not problem-solving but the information and performance of habits”
  2. The stimulus-response chain, S-Responseà emphasizes conditioning and building from the simplest conditioned responses to more and more complex behaviors.
  3. All learning is the establishment of habits as the result of reinforcement and rewardà positive reinforcement is reward, negative reinforcement is punishment.
  4. The learning, due to its socially-conditioned nature, can be the same for each individual à each person  can learn equally if the condition in which the learning takes are the same for each person.

CLASSICAL VS OPERANT CONDITIONING based on (Cherry,2008)

Classical conditioning

  • First described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist
  • Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex
  • Focuses on involuntary response and stimulus

Operant conditioning

  • First described  by B.F Skinner, an American psychologist
  • Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior
  • Focuses on  a voluntary behavior and consequence

THE STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS OF BEHAVIORISM

            The next section  that will be discussed is the strength and weakness of behaviorism(As cited in Mergel:1998)

The strength of behaviorism is focused on a clear goal  and can respond automatically to the cues of that goal. On the other hand , the weakness of it is the learners may find themselves in a situation where the stimulus for the correct response does not occur, so the learner cannot respond.  A worker  who has been conditioned to respond to a certain cue at work stops production when an  anomaly occurs because they do not understand the system.

APPLICATION OF BEHAVIORISM FOR ELT

         Behaviorism offers a particular perspective on how learning occurs and how teaching impacts that process. According to Beavers, Eaglin, Green, Nathan and Wolfe (2002)) Learning is a persisting change in performance or performance potential that results from experience and interaction with the world. The importance  of measurable and observable performance and the impact of the environment comprise foundational principles of the  behaviorist approach to learning.

Some things to remember when incorporating behaviorist principles into your teaching:

• Write observable and measurable behavioral learning outcomes

• Specify the desired performances in advance (the learning outcomes serve this purpose) and verify learning with appropriate assessments

• Emphasize performance, and practice in an authentic context

• Use instructional strategies to shape desired skills

• Reinforce accomplishments with appropriate feedback

Behaviorism  can be applied through the teaching method such as Audiolingual method, TPR,Silent way.

A.APPLYING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN THE CLASSROOM

         The teacher can apply  the principles of behaviorism in the classroom that can be applied through classical and operant conditioning. The key elements in classical conditioning (as cited in journal from asiaeuniversity).

  • A teacher uses attractive learning aids
  • Decorate the classrooms
  • Encourage students to work in small group for difficult learning tasks
  • Greet the students and smile at them  when he comes to the classroom
  • Inform  the students clearly  and specifically  the format of quizzes , tests, and examination
  • Make the students understand the rules of the classroom
  • Give time for students  to prepare  for and complete the learning tasks.

B.APPLYING OPERANT CONDITIONING IN THE CLASSROOM

         In operant conditioning , the consequences of behavior place changes in the probability that the behavior will occur. Reinforcement and punishment are two main concepts in operant conditioning. The following are some examples on how operant conditioning can be applied in the classroom (as cited in journal from asiaeuniversity)

  • Recognize and reinforce positive behaviors and genuine task accomplishment
  • Use various types of reinforcement such as teacher approval (praise, smile, attention and pats on the shoulder)concrete reinforcement(cookies, candies and stationery) and privileges(longer recess time and more time with friends)
  • Reinforce good behaviors and punish bad ones consistently
  • Use schedule of reinforcement, such as surprise rewards, to encourage persistence
  • Use positive punishment as the last option. Use negative punishment such as detention class ,instead.
  • Punish students’ behavior , not their personal qualities.
  • Tell the students which behavior is being punished.

THE DIFFERENCES OF BEHAVIORISM WITH OTHER THEORIES.

            In this case, I would like to discuss the differences of behaviorism compare with other theories based on two experts. The first is the differences between behaviorism and constructivism theory  based  on Alzaghoul. The description is as follows:

 Behaviorism

  • Students tend to be passive
  • The teacher is active in teaching learning process than the students since the teacher presents and provides for practice and feedback.
  • The material  is prepared by the teacher.

 Constructivism

  • Students tend to be active
  • The teacher is passive because the students  do their personal discovery knowledge
  • The students understand the information or material  constructed by themselves

The second is the differences of behaviorism theory compare with cognitivism and constructivism theories based on Orey (2008).

The Differences of cognitivism ,behaviorism,and constructivism (as cited in Orey:2008)

Cognitivism

It stresses on acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structure.

The role of teacher  in cognitivism is to

1)Understand that individuals bring various learning experiences to the learning situation which can impact experiences to the learning situation which can impact learning outcomes,

(2) Determine the most effective manner in which to organize and structure new information to tap the learners’ previously acquired knowledge, abilities, and experiences, and

(3) Arrange practice with feedback so that the new information is effectively and efficiently assimilated within the learner’s cognitive structure.

Behaviorism

It stresses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic including the use of instructional cues, practice  and reinforcement.

The role of teacher in behaviorism theory is to

(1) Determine which cues can elicit the desired responses,

(2) Arrange practice situations in which prompts are paired with the target stimuli that initially have no eliciting power but which will be expected to elicit the responses in the natural setting,

(3) Arrange environmental conditions.

Constructivism

It stresses  based on  construction of our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema.

The role of teacher is

(1) To instruct learners on how to construct meaning

 (2) To align and design experiences for the learner so that authentic relevant contexts can be experienced. Instructions in constructivism have some characteristics:

(a) An emphasis on the identification of the context in which the skills will be learned and subsequently applied,,

(b) An emphasis on learner control and the capability of the learner to manipulate information,

(c) The need for information to be presented in a variety of different ways,

(d) porting the use of problem solving skills that allow learners to go “beyond the information given”

(e) Assessment focused on transfer of knowledge and skills

CONCLUSION

         Based on the explanation above related to behaviorism , I can infer that the implementation of that theory itself is like the conventional method where the students tend to be passive in teaching and learning process while the center of the learning is the teacher  since the teacher presents and provides for practice and feedback. The students tend to get reinforcement from the teacher in order the students can do what the teacher’s intend . If the students can response  to the teacher’s stimuli correctly , they can get reward such as  stikers, treat , food  and shopping, While punishment  is the negative feedback that is given to the learners if they can’t response the stimuli well.  For example for the punishment such as  no play time, extra chores and taking away item.

Behaviorism overall helps the teacher with her class in many ways. It helps her to have smooth classroom management skills, keep her children to work hard to achieve their highest potential. Through behaviorist theory  ,the students learn how to behave in correct way.

REFERENCES

Alzaghoul, Ahmad Fawaz. The Implication of the Learning Theories on implementing E-Learning Courses.The Research Bulletin of Jordan ACM. Vol 11(11). Pp 27-30. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Asiaeuniversity, 2012. Learning Theories-behaviorism. Chapter Four. Available on http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_4.pdf. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Beavers,Helayne, Jan Collins-Eaglin, Donna Green, Geoffrey Nathan,and Kristi Wolve.(2002).From Theory to Practice:Behaviorist Principles of Learning and Instruction.. The Office for Teaching and Learning Newsletter.Vol 7.No 2. Available online at http://www.otl.wayne.edu/newsltr.html. Accessed on1/10/2012.

Behaviorism. As retrieved on http://www.learningteaching,info/learning/behaviour.htm.Accessed on 25/9/2012.

Cherry, K. 2008. John B. Watson Biography. Avalaible on http://psychology.about.com/b/2008/02/09/257235.htm. Accessed on 20/9/2012.

…………..2008. B. F. Skinner Biography. Available onhttp://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_skinner.htm. Accessed on 20/9/2012.

..………..2008. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Available onhttp://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_pavlov.htm. Accessed on 20/9/2012.

……………..2008. Schedules of Reinforcement. Available on http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/schedules.htm. accessed on 25/9/2012

Demirezen, Doc, Dr Mehmet.1988. Behaviorist Theory and Language Learning. Page 3. Available on http://www.efdergi.hacettepe.edu.tr/19883MEHMET%20DEM%C4%B0REZEN.pdf. Accessed on 1/10/2012.

Mergel, Brenda.1998. Instructional Design & Learning Theory. Available on15www.a3net.net/elearning/Instructional_design-comparison-mergel.pdf. Accessed on 10 October 2012.

Orey.2008.Comparison of Major Learning Paradigm.Available on 81bada.myweb.uga.edu/portfolio/comparison.pdf. Accessed on 7 October 2012.

Strandridge,Melissa.Behaviorism.Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology, University of Georgia. As retrieved in http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Behaviorism.html accessed  on 1/10/2012.

Tomic, Welko.(1993).Behaviorism and Cognitivism in Education.A Journal of Human Behavior. Vol 30,Pp.34-46.Accessed  on 1/10/2012.

Waltman,Svend.(2003).Behaviorism.Available on http://lionsden.tec.selu.edu/~swaltman/behaviorism.pdf. Accessed  on 1/10/2012.

 

 

Advertisements

DINA   NOVITA   WIJAYANTI

2003512008

FIRST REGULER ROMBEL SEMARANG

THE ESSAY OF BEHAVIORISM THEORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

         As the students of English Education Department , it is important to us to know the kinds of approaches or theories related language teaching and learning. In this case, some approaches  have constructed in teaching and learning process. All of the approaches are conducted in teaching learning process in order to get the positive effect for the students and the teacher itself. The use of the approach itself is to improve or increase the students ability in learning. Although there are some theories that still used some conventional methods that make the students uninterested in joining the teaching learning process. So the role for the teacher is to apply appropriate approach based on the condition of the students in order it can make the students are interested to learn .In this case , I would like to discuss about behaviorism that is explained in detail through history of behaviorism , definition of behaviorism ,the characteristics of behaviorism, the principles of behaviorism , the strength and weaknesses of behaviorism, the application of behaviorism in ELT, the differences of behaviorism with other theories.

HISTORY OF BEHAVIORISM

      According to Demirezen (1988:135)  background  of behaviorism growth is basically, behaviorist theory is psychology theory that was founded by J.B Watson  as a reaction to traditional grammar. This theory  was supported by Leonard Bloomfield, O.N ,Mowrer, B.F Skinner and A.W Staats, Behaviorism grown in America as a new approach of psychology by making a particular  emphasis on the importance of verbal behavior. The major principle of  behaviorist theory is the analysis  of human behavior in observable stimulus-response  interaction as the association between them. Thorndike was the first behaviorist who explored the learning area in order to form the association on particular process of behavior and the consequence itself. There were kinds of behaviorism  that  the behaviorist theory of stimulus response learning was developed in operant conditioning from Skinner. He assumed that all learning to be establishment of habits as a result of reinforcement and reward. On the other hand, the other behaviorist that was assumed by Pavlov that stimulus  and response work together. The example of behaviorism based on Pavlov was children developed to learn  the language of their social surroundings naturally whose importance both over language learning and teaching must never be underestimated .In this respect of behaviorist was in fact that human and animal learning is process of habit formation. A highly  complex learning task, according to this theory may be learned by being broken down into small habits. These are formed correct and incorrect response, are rewarded or punished ( Hubbard Jones and Thornton Wheeler, 1983;326 as cited in Demirezen (1988:135)). Thus, it is clear that the acquisition  of learning in infancy is governed the acquisition of other habits.

THE DEFINITION OF BEHAVIORSM

          According to Waltman (2003) Behaviorism is a theory of animal  and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors. While, (as retrieved in  http://www.learningteaching.info/learning/behaviour.htm)  behaviorism described as developmental theory that measures observable behaviors produced by a learner’s response to stimuli. From those definitions of behaviorism from two experts , I can infer that  behaviorism is a theory that measures observable behavior that are produced by the learner to respond to the stimuli. The response to stimuli can be reinforced  with positive and negative feedback to condition  the desired behaviors. Reward is the positive feedback that is given to the learners because they can response to the stimuli correctly For example reward can be realized through stikers, treat , food  and shopping, While punishment  is the negative feedback that is given to the learners if they can’t response the stimuli well.  For example for the punishment such as  no play time, extra chores and taking away item. There are some of the key consequences of behavior.  The reward can strengthen the behaviors in order  the learners can increase the behavior. For instance, giving praise to promote good behavior. While, punishment can decrease  the behavior in order the learner don’t want to do it again . For instance, if the child  get extra chores or no recess.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIORISM

            According to Tomic , Behaviorism attempts to describe , explain  and influence behavior. In this section, I would like to describe the features of behaviorism.

  1. According to behaviorist,  the most important causes of motivation for behaviorism lie outside rather than within the individual.
  2. The dualistic portrayal of mankind which distinguishes between mental processes and observable behavior is scientifically unproductive. For example” Mary loses control of herself because she is aggressive”. This sentence means something. Mary is the cause of their observable behavior. However, the only way  to detect the inner characteristics serving to explain behavior in such pronouncements is to observe this behavior. We see that the cause and effect have  the same source.
  3. The scientific study of mankind should be restricted as much as possible  to directly observable quantities.
  4. Explanations of human behavior are simple in principle, as behavior arose out the elementary learning processes, but in practice however , behavior is quite complex. Both the behavioral  patterns of and the outside influences that effect human beings  are complicated.
  5. Man is generally a shallow  and imprecise observer of both his own  and others’ behavior. The dualistic portrayal of mankind forces him to propose all sorts of dubious explanations.
  6. The attempt to influence behavior must be preceded by a thorough behavioral analysis. If the attempt to influence behavior fails, then the analysis is incorrect or incomplete and must be revised.

THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING  OF BEHAVIORISM

          The behaviorism is primarily associated with Pavlov (classical conditioning)in Russia and J.B Watson. While, B.F Skinner in United  States(operant conditioning). The two types of possible conditioning that  are  classical and operant conditioning are explained as follow.

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

        Ivan Pavlov is brilliant Russian Behaviorist. He studied about behaviorism (reflexes) for thirty years and was considered  to be the father of conditioning theory. He concerned in the concept of classical conditioning behaviorism. Classical  conditioning is the process of relax learning. Moreover, the condition tends to use the behavioral training naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. According to Waltman (2003)the example of  classical conditioning is Pavlov found that providing food to a dog would set off a response by an elevated salivary flow. He controlled the situation by ringing a bell each time food was given to the dog. He discovered that he could make the saliva flows just by ringing the bell, although food was not supplied. The bell , being the secondary stimulus, was so directly connected with the food or primary stimulus that the bell  brought about the salivary flow or primary response. The relax was triggered by a new stimulus. He called this “ a conditioned reflex”(Rippa, 1996 as cited in Waltman(2003)). A  learner  behavior based on experience became known as “classical conditioning”.

  The principles of classical conditioning (as cited in Cherry)

  1. Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response  is to be strengthened.
  2. Extinction is when the occurrences  of a conditioned response decrease or disappear
  3. Spontaneous  Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after  a rest period
  4. Stimulus Generalization is the tendency  for the conditioned stimulus to appear  similar  responses after the response has been conditioned.
  5. Discrimination is the ability  to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus

John B Watson(1878-1958)

        John B. Watson is the important contributor to classical behaviorism . He studied the behavior of animals. Watson’s approach was influenced by Ivan Pavlov who concerned in Classical  conditioning. Classical conditioning is the process of reflex learning. Watson’s approach emphasized in the role of stimuli in producing conditioned responses. For this reason, Watson may describe it  as an S-R(Stimulus-Response) called ”reflexes”. He believed that one’s surrounding and background are much more dominant than genetics in the determination of human behavior. He thought that one’s surroundings were the main stimulus that established behavior. He considered that if he could be in charge of a child’s surroundings, he could shape the child into any type of person he  sought. In his research similar to Pavlov’s experiment with  a dog’s digestive. Watson trained a child to fear a rat. When the child came in contact with the rat aloud noise was made and the child was startled. This led to the eventual fear of furry animals. Watson believed that if he could make a child fear a rat, then he could create any situation and response that he desired( Waltman, 2003).

B.F Skinner(1904-1990)

         B.F Skinner is American behaviorist whom develop a system based on operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the idea  that we behave the way we do  because this kind of behavior  has had certain consequences in the past. In operant conditioning there is reinforcement of the behavior  by giving reward or punishment.

   Positive reinforcement shows by giving reward to increase the response.

   Negative reinforcement shows by giving punishment to decrease response.

The greatest contribution of B.F Skinner was known his studies of how rewards and punishment influence behavior(Fisher,202 as cited in Waltman :2003). He taught that reinforcement follows behavior. Human behavior is developed by previous situations and reinforcements. Behavior enlarges in areas that are positively reinforced, therefore, we should be controlling, creating events that reinforce desired behavior. Skinner used a tool which was known the ”Skinner box”. This box was used to observe behavior in tested situations  and for operant conditioning experiment. For example Operant conditioning( as cited in Strandrige) is the mouse pushes the lever and receives a food reward. Therefore, he will push the lever repeatedly in order to get the treat. It means that the mouse can response to the stimuli well so, the  mouse can get reward in the  form of treat .Through his experiment he concluded that behavior could be changed by providing reinforcement based upon the response.

The principles of operant conditioning (as cited in Demirezeen(1988:137))

  1. Behaviorist theory dwells on spoken languageà learning language  is primarily what is spoken  and secondarily what is written.
  1. Behaviorist theory is the habit  formation theory of language teaching and learning, reminding us the learning of structural grammarà Language learning concerns us by “not problem-solving but the information and performance of habits”
  2. The stimulus-response chain, S-Responseà emphasizes conditioning and building from the simplest conditioned responses to more and more complex behaviors.
  3. All learning is the establishment of habits as the result of reinforcement and rewardà positive reinforcement is reward, negative reinforcement is punishment.
  4. The learning, due to its socially-conditioned nature, can be the same for each individual à each person  can learn equally if the condition in which the learning takes are the same for each person.

CLASSICAL VS OPERANT CONDITIONING based on (Cherry,2008)

Classical conditioning

  • First described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist
  • Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex
  • Focuses on involuntary response and stimulus

Operant conditioning

  • First described  by B.F Skinner, an American psychologist
  • Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior
  • Focuses on  a voluntary behavior and consequence

THE STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS OF BEHAVIORISM

            The next section  that will be discussed is the strength and weakness of behaviorism(As cited in Mergel:1998)

The strength of behaviorism is focused on a clear goal  and can respond automatically to the cues of that goal. On the other hand , the weakness of it is the learners may find themselves in a situation where the stimulus for the correct response does not occur, so the learner cannot respond.  A worker  who has been conditioned to respond to a certain cue at work stops production when an  anomaly occurs because they do not understand the system.

APPLICATION OF BEHAVIORISM FOR ELT

       Behaviorism offers a particular perspective on how learning occurs and how teaching impacts that process. According to Beavers, Eaglin, Green, Nathan and Wolfe (2002)) Learning is a persisting change in performance or performance potential that results from experience and interaction with the world. The importance  of measurable and observable performance and the impact of the environment comprise foundational principles of the  behaviorist approach to learning.

Some things to remember when incorporating behaviorist principles into your teaching:

• Write observable and measurable behavioral learning outcomes

• Specify the desired performances in advance (the learning outcomes serve this purpose) and verify learning with appropriate assessments

• Emphasize performance, and practice in an authentic context

• Use instructional strategies to shape desired skills

• Reinforce accomplishments with appropriate feedback

Behaviorism  can be applied through the teaching method such as Audiolingual method, TPR,Silent way.

A.APPLYING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN THE CLASSROOM

The teacher can apply  the principles of behaviorism in the classroom that can be applied through classical and operant conditioning. The key elements in classical conditioning (as cited in journal from asiaeuniversity).

  • A teacher uses attractive learning aids
  • Decorate the classrooms
  • Encourage students to work in small group for difficult learning tasks
  • Greet the students and smile at them  when he comes to the classroom
  • Inform  the students clearly  and specifically  the format of quizzes , tests, and examination
  • Make the students understand the rules of the classroom
  • Give time for students  to prepare  for and complete the learning tasks.

B.APPLYING OPERANT CONDITIONING IN THE CLASSROOM

           In operant conditioning , the consequences of behavior place changes in the probability that the behavior will occur. Reinforcement and punishment are two main concepts in operant conditioning. The following are some examples on how operant conditioning can be applied in the classroom (as cited in journal from asiaeuniversity)

  • Recognize and reinforce positive behaviors and genuine task accomplishment
  • Use various types of reinforcement such as teacher approval (praise, smile, attention and pats on the shoulder)concrete reinforcement(cookies, candies and stationery) and privileges(longer recess time and more time with friends)
  • Reinforce good behaviors and punish bad ones consistently
  • Use schedule of reinforcement, such as surprise rewards, to encourage persistence
  • Use positive punishment as the last option. Use negative punishment such as detention class ,instead.
  • Punish students’ behavior , not their personal qualities.
  • Tell the students which behavior is being punished.

THE DIFFERENCES OF BEHAVIORISM WITH OTHER THEORIES.

            In this case, I would like to discuss the differences of behaviorism compare with other theories based on two experts. The first is the differences between behaviorism and constructivism theory  based  on Alzaghoul. The description is as follows:

 Behaviorism

  • Students tend to be passive
  • The teacher is active in teaching learning process than the students since the teacher presents and provides for practice and feedback.
  • The material  is prepared by the teacher.

 Constructivism

  • Students tend to be active
  • The teacher is passive because the students  do their personal discovery knowledge
  • The students understand the information or material  constructed by themselves

The second is the differences of behaviorism theory compare with cognitivism and constructivism theories based on Orey (2008).

The Differences of cognitivism ,behaviorism,and constructivism (as cited in Orey:2008)

Cognitivism

It stresses on acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structure.

The role of teacher  in cognitivism is to

1)Understand that individuals bring various learning experiences to the learning situation which can impact experiences to the learning situation which can impact learning outcomes,

(2) Determine the most effective manner in which to organize and structure new information to tap the learners’ previously acquired knowledge, abilities, and experiences, and

(3) Arrange practice with feedback so that the new information is effectively and efficiently assimilated within the learner’s cognitive structure.

Behaviorism

It stresses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic including the use of instructional cues, practice  and reinforcement.

The role of teacher in behaviorism theory is to

(1) Determine which cues can elicit the desired responses,

(2) Arrange practice situations in which prompts are paired with the target stimuli that initially have no eliciting power but which will be expected to elicit the responses in the natural setting,

(3) Arrange environmental conditions.

Constructivism

It stresses  based on  construction of our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema.

The role of teacher is

(1) To instruct learners on how to construct meaning

 (2) To align and design experiences for the learner so that authentic relevant contexts can be experienced. Instructions in constructivism have some characteristics:

(a) An emphasis on the identification of the context in which the skills will be learned and subsequently applied,,

(b) An emphasis on learner control and the capability of the learner to manipulate information,

(c) The need for information to be presented in a variety of different ways,

(d) porting the use of problem solving skills that allow learners to go “beyond the information given”

(e) Assessment focused on transfer of knowledge and skills

CONCLUSION

        Based on the explanation above related to behaviorism , I can infer that the implementation of that theory itself is like the conventional method where the students tend to be passive in teaching and learning process while the center of the learning is the teacher  since the teacher presents and provides for practice and feedback. The students tend to get reinforcement from the teacher in order the students can do what the teacher’s intend . If the students can response  to the teacher’s stimuli correctly , they can get reward such as  stikers, treat , food  and shopping, While punishment  is the negative feedback that is given to the learners if they can’t response the stimuli well.  For example for the punishment such as  no play time, extra chores and taking away item.

Behaviorism overall helps the teacher with her class in many ways. It helps her to have smooth classroom management skills, keep her children to work hard to achieve their highest potential. Through behaviorist theory  ,the students learn how to behave in correct way.

REFERENCES

Alzaghoul, Ahmad Fawaz. The Implication of the Learning Theories on implementing E-Learning Courses.The Research Bulletin of Jordan ACM. Vol 11(11). Pp 27-30. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Asiaeuniversity, 2012. Learning Theories-behaviorism. Chapter Four. Available on http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_4.pdf. Accessed on 20/10/2012

Beavers,Helayne, Jan Collins-Eaglin, Donna Green, Geoffrey Nathan,and Kristi Wolve.(2002).From Theory to Practice:Behaviorist Principles of Learning and Instruction.. The Office for Teaching and Learning Newsletter.Vol 7.No 2. Available online at http://www.otl.wayne.edu/newsltr.html. Accessed on1/10/2012.

Behaviorism. As retrieved on http://www.learningteaching,info/learning/behaviour.htm.Accessed on 25/9/2012.

Cherry, K. 2008. John B. Watson Biography. Avalaible on http://psychology.about.com/b/2008/02/09/257235.htm. Accessed on 20/9/2012.

…………..2008. B. F. Skinner Biography. Available onhttp://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_skinner.htm. Accessed on 20/9/2012.

..………..2008. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Available onhttp://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_pavlov.htm. Accessed on 20/9/2012.

……………..2008. Schedules of Reinforcement. Available on http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/schedules.htm. accessed on 25/9/2012.

Demirezen, Doc, Dr Mehmet.1988. Behaviorist Theory and Language Learning. Page 3. Available on http://www.efdergi.hacettepe.edu.tr/19883MEHMET%20DEM%C4%B0REZEN.pdf. Accessed on 1/10/2012.

Mergel, Brenda.1998. Instructional Design & Learning Theory. Available on15www.a3net.net/elearning/Instructional_design-comparison-mergel.pdf. Accessed on 10 October 2012.

Orey.2008.Comparison of Major Learning Paradigm.Available on 81bada.myweb.uga.edu/portfolio/comparison.pdf. Accessed on 7 October 2012.

Strandridge,Melissa.Behaviorism.Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology, University of Georgia. As retrieved in http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Behaviorism.html accessed  on 1/10/2012.

Tomic, Welko.(1993).Behaviorism and Cognitivism in Education.A Journal of Human Behavior. Vol 30,Pp.34-46.Accessed  on 1/10/2012.

Waltman,Svend.(2003).Behaviorism.Available on http://lionsden.tec.selu.edu/~swaltman/behaviorism.pdf. Accessed  on 1/10/2012.

 

 

THE ASSIGNMENT OF THEORIES OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING “CONSTRUCTIVISM AND BEHAVIORISM”

THE ASSIGNMENT OF THEORIES OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

CONSTRUCTIVISM AND BEHAVIORISM

BY

DINA NOVITA WIJAYANTI,2003512008

FIRST REGULER ROMBEL

1.Constructivism Theories on Language Teaching  and  Learning

Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to Von Glasersfeld 1996, Fosnot 1996, Duffy and Cuningham 1996 ”Constructivism is a theory of learning which posits that students learn by actively constructing”. It means that ”Constructivism is an approach  in which the students learn something by constructing their own  understanding and knowledge. In this case, the students as the learners become the central  in the learning process. The learning of the students is effected by their prejudices ,experiences etc. Here, the constructivist classrooms unlike the conventional teaching. The position of the teacher is as facilitator and guide who plans, organizes, guides and provides directions to the learner to do their own learning. While if the learners(students) find problem  in their learning, they can work in group  to solve it. This way leads the students to create of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.

Constructivist theories more popularity with “advent of personal computers in classrooms and homes”. Personal computers provide individual students with tools to experiment and build their own learning at their own pace. Under constructivist theory, learners would use available building blocks to construct knowledge that is viable and meaningful for them in an ongoing process of construction, evaluation and modification constructs. The assessment tool in a constructivist classroom  is not a test or a quiz, rather it is the learner product(portfolio format) that has been designed by the learner.

1.1  Approaches of Constructivism

There are two main approaches to constructivism . They are cognitive and social constructivism. The former is associated with the work of Piaget and the latter with Vygotsky. In this case, cognitive constructivist concentrates on the importance of the mind in learning, while social constructivist focuses on the key role played by the environment and the interaction between learners. Piaget focuses on the developmental of cognitive structure in learners. On the other hand,, Vygotsky focuses on the social interaction in the learning. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky  are two eminent figures in the development of constructivism theories. They believe that classrooms must be constructivist environment. Although they have the same belief but there are differences in terms  on their theories and variations such as how constructivism should be carried out in classroom.

1.2 Piaget Cognitive Constructivism (1896-1980)

Jean Piaget was a philosopher from Switzerland. He was also a natural  scientist that was famous for the work that he did studying cognitive development and learning theories.

Piaget’s developmental theory of learning and constructivism are based on discovery. According to his constructivist theory , in order to provide an ideal learning environment, children should be allowed to construct knowledge that is meaningful to them. There are two concepts within the cognitive constructivism learning theory  based on Piaget which create the construction of an individual’s new knowledge . They are assimilation and accommodation.

Assimilation causes an individual to incorporate new experiences into the old experiences. This causes the individual to develop new outlooks, rethink what were once misunderstanding, evaluate what is important and changing  their perception. While accommodation is an ongoing process involving continual interaction between the mind and the environment. It is reframing the world and new experiences into the mental capacity that already present.

1.2.1 The Piagetian Classroom

Piaget believes that a constructivist classroom must provide a variety of activities to challenge the students to concept individual differences, increase their readiness to learn ,discover new ideas and construct their own knowledge. In an elementary Piagetian classroom, concrete learning experiences such as drawing, drama, model building and field trip that involve hands on opportunities to see, hear, touch, taste and smell are essential. These early activities and visual aids serve as building blocks for more sophisticated tasks such as reading comprehension.

 1.3 Vygotsky  Social Constructivism(1896-1934)

Len Vygotsky is known because of his theory of social constructivism. He believes that learning and development are a collaborative activity in which children are cognitively developed in the context of socialization and education. In this case, Vygotsky’s constructivism is known as social constructivism because of the significance of culture and social contexts. The way  how to apply the social constructivism is the first, the child makes contact with the social environment on an interpersonal  level and then internalizes this experience. The earlier notions and new experience influence the child who then constructs new ideas. For example, the point of  a finger shows how this behavior . It becomes a meaningful movement when others react to gesture.

Mediation is the key concept of Vygotsky’s theory of constructivism. Mediation refers to people intentionally interject items between their environment and themselves, so that they are able to modify  it and gain specific benefits. Through mediation, there are some benefits of Vygotsky’s constructivism theory. They are as follows:

  1. Vygotsky’s theory of constructivism  supports that the use of mediator helps the human to alter their environment (this is the way of interacting with the nature).
  2. Supports the use of activity . In this case, mediator provides a way in which people are able to interact with the  nature.
  3. Mediation is also defined as the use of certain tools within socially organized  activity.

1.3.1 The Vygotskian Classroom

The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning ,predicting ,summarizing and clarifying.

In a Vygotskian classroom ,dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs. Students are exposed to discussion ,research collaboration, electronic information resources and project groups that work on problem analysis.

1.4 Conclusion

Both Piaget and Vygotsky  appreciated the importance of building constructs and internalizing the knowledge given, rather than accepting the information as presented through rote-memory. Constructivist learning environments promote the learner to gather, filter, analyze, and reflect on the information provided and to comment on this knowledge so that it will result in individualized comprehension and private learning.

REFERENCES

Http://eca.state.gov/forum/vols/vol44/no4/p12.htm [accesed on 15/09/12]

Http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory) [accessed on 15/09/12]

Http://www.fountainmagazine.com/Issue/detail/CONSTRUCTIVISM-in-Piaget-and-Vygotsky[accesed on 15/09/12]

Http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/piaget/[accesed on 15/09/12]

Http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/vygotsky[accesed on 15/09/12]

2.Behaviorism  Theories on  Language Teaching and  Learning

 

Behaviorism  is a theory that measures the observable behaviors that produced by a learner’s response to stimuli. Respond to stimuli can be reinforced with positive or negative feedback to condition the desired behaviors. Knowing or reward is given for the correct response to stimuli, while punishment is given for  incorrect response to stimuli, here if the learner’s giving is incorrect response, he or she  can do clarifying to the desired actions. The important thing for learner as the behaviorist is when he or she gives the correct response to stimuli.

There are some concepts of learning related to the behaviorism theory. They are process that tends to be passive, the learners use  low level processing skill to understand the material, the material is often isolated from real world contexts or situation, and the learners use little responsibility in concerning the education.

While, the typical behavioristic model of the classroom includes classroom management, rote memorization, drill and practice. Here, reading section was the activity that was highlighted in classroom management. The using of behaviorism theory can  be used to  positive and negative reinforcements to elicit desired behavior of students in order to  establish and maintain the classroom management.

The explanation above is the point of view related to behaviorism. After knowing the explanation above, I can conclude that behaviorism focuses on behaviors  that can be observed. Reward or punishment is the consequence of the behavior. Reward can be shown through giving stickers ,treats, food etc. While, punishment  can be shown  such as  no play time, extra chores and taking away item. Here, reward  as the positive reinforcement  can increase or strengthen the behaviors for example  giving praise or promotes good behaviors. On the other hand, punishment  as the negative reinforcement  can decrease the behavior such as if the child is acting out the get extra work or no recess.

The behaviorism is primarily associated with Pavlov (classical conditioning)in Russia and J.B Watson. While, B.F Skinner in United  States(operant conditioning). The two types of possible conditioning that  are  classical and operant conditioning will be explained as follows.

2.1  Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

Ivan Pavlov is brilliant Russian Behaviorist. It means that he observed behavior. He states that  the human  mind should be interpreted as a black box that can be opened. It means that what goes in can come out as knowledge. Here, Ivan Pavlov  concerned in the concept of classical conditioning behaviorism.

Classical  conditioning is the process of relax learning through which an unconditioned stimulus (e.g food) which produces an unconditioned response(salivation). Unconditioned stimulus together  with conditioned stimulus(bell) produces the salivation (unconditioned response). While, conditioned stimulus (bell) produces the conditioned response(salivation).

Here, Pavlov was interested in studying reflexes, when he saw  that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food  was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out  that the dogs were reacting to lab coats. Every  time the food was on its way whenever they saw  a lab coat. In series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure  out how  these phenomena were linked. For example, he struck  a bell when the dogs were  fed. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal, the dogs learned  to associate  the sound the bell with food.

2.2 John B Watson(1878-1958)

 

John B. Watson is the important contributor to classical behaviorism . Here, he studied the behavior of animals. Watson’s approach was influenced by Ivan Pavlov who concerned in Classical  conditioning. Classical conditioning  is the process of reflex learning. Here, Watson’s approach emphasized in the role of stimuli in producing conditioned responses. For this reason, Watson may describe it  as an S-R(Stimulus-Response).

2.3 B.F Skinner(1904-1990)

B.F Skinner is American behaviorist whom develop a system based on operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the idea  that we behave the way we do  because this kind of behavior  has had certain consequences in the past. In operant conditioning there is reinforcement of the behavior  by giving reward or punishment.

   Positive reinforcement shows by giving reward to increase the response.

   Negative reinforcement shows by giving punishment to decrease response.

The greatest contribution of B.F Skinner was his description of effects of reinforcement on responses. Here, the learning of behavior based on reinforcement has taken place in the past, so that the antecedent of the new behavior includes the consequences of previous study.

In this case, the experiment with operant conditioning by using rats and pigeons. For example, while a rat might press a lever with its left paw or its right paw or its tail, all these responses operate on the world  in the same way and have a common consequence .The other example is the pigeon . Taught the pigeons how to bowl through operant conditioning.

2.4 Conclusion

Behaviorism  is a theory that measures the observable behaviors that produced by a learner’s response to stimuli. Knowing or reward is given for the correct response to stimuli, while punishment is given for  incorrect response to stimuli. The behaviorism is primarily associated with Pavlov (classical conditioning)in Russia and J.B Watson. While, B.F Skinner in United  States(operant conditioning). The two types of possible conditioning that  are  classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning using reflexes found in nature while operant conditioning is introducing  new reflexes through reinforcement. Here, conditioning is the center of learning. Behavior is shaped through reward or punishment for certain responses.

REFERENCES

 

Brown, H Doughlas.(2000).Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition.Son Fransisco:Addison Wesley Longman,Inc

Http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/behaviorism.html[ accesed on 15/09/12]

Http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour.htm[accesed on 15/09/12]

Http://science.jrank.org/pages/8448/Behaviorism-Neobehaviorism-1930-1955.html[accesed on 15/09/12]

http://teachinglearningresources.pbworks.com/w/page/19919540/Behaviorism[accesd on 15/09/12]

 

 

 

FINAL ASSIGNMENT OF ICT IN LANGUAGE LEARNING MATRICULATION COURSE

DINA NOVITA WIJAYANTI

NIM 2003512008

ROMBEL 1 REGULER SEMARANG

 

 The Use of Facebook in Teaching Writing Descriptive Text

of Senior High School Students

 

1.Introduction

English has become a subject in the National curriculum of formal education from elementary up to senior high school in Indonesia. The students are expected to master four language skills. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. According to Troyka as retrieved in (http://teachingenglishonline.net/definition-of-writingability) states that ”Writing is a way of communicating a message to a reader  for a certain  purpose”. Without having good English writing skill can lead to the  wrong or ambiguous  message. It means that writing plays an important role in human life since it enables us to communicate with others without face to face meeting.

In this case, I find the phenomenon  related to the writing which happens  in senior high school. The problem is the students find difficulties in writing descriptive text. According  to Syafei (2009:8)”Descriptive text is a text that describes a particular person, place or thing”. There are many students still perform poorly  in writing a descriptive text and they are uninterested in writing. They are lacked to practice and the teacher provides less time for teaching writing compared to the other language skills. Moreover , some teachers still use  conventional media in the learning process such as picture and photos. It causes  the students unattractive to join the activities in the class . Based on the reasons above, I want to offer a new media to solve this problem especially in writing descriptive text. By using facebook, I want to help the students to produce a descriptive text. Facebook as media to publish students’ writing is proposed to be integrated in teaching writing. Facebook is chosen because it is very popular among the students so it can encourage the students to write.

I have learned ”Using Facebook to Improve Students’ Achievement in Writing a Descriptive Text at State Senior High School 1 at Karangan, Trenggalek, East Java. It was written by Nurliana(2010) from Malang State University. The result finding of the previous study shows the positive effect of using facebook as media to improve the students’ writing ability in producing descriptive text.

As retrieved in (http://www.techterms.com/definition/facebook), explains that Facebook is a social media web application. Students use facebook  for communicating with others. Facebook users can create and customize  their own profile with photos, video and information about themselves. Each facebook has a “wall” where friends can post comments .If the users don’t want to show their personal messages, they can use inbox, similar to an email message. According to Saikaew et al(2011) ”Facebook is one of the most effective tools in teaching writing because it increases the motivation  of the students to write  by using fun learning media”.

 The use of facebook as media is expected to help students to improve their ability in writing descriptive texts. Based on the explanation above, I am interested  in finding out  the use of facebook to improve the writing descriptive text of Senior High School students.

Thus from the reasons above, I intend to hold a study entitled” The Use of Facebook in Teaching Writing Descriptive Text of Senior High School Students.

2.Objective of the Study

 The objective of the study is:

“To find out whether or not there is any significant difference between the writing descriptive text of Senior High School students  before and after being taught by using facebook”.

3.Review of Related  Literature

3.1 Teaching English in Senior High School

In Senior High School, English is one of the most important subjects of the national examination. Because of the reason, the component that is engaged in the language should be taken seriously in teaching and learning process.

3.1.1 The Purpose of Teaching English in Senior High School

The purpose of teaching English is creating the students who master  four language skills. They are listening, speaking, reading and writing in English  since it becomes the International language that is used to communicate with other people in the world. Moreover, the other purpose of teaching English is to enable the students to comprehend text(genre).

3.1.2 The Material of Teaching English in Senior High School

Every teacher uses teaching materials to fulfill the purpose of teaching learning activities. The materials which are given to the students must be based on the curriculum. According to National Education Department(as cited in Valentina,2011)  “Curriculum is set of plans and rules that contains the purpose, the contents, the material and the principles of teaching process in order to reach certain education goals”. The writing materials of teaching English for senior high school  students are  descriptive, narrative, hortatory exposition, analytical exposition etc.

3.2  Writing is a Language Skill

Writing is one of the important skills that should be mastered by the students in learning English as foreign language. According to Troyka (as cited in http://teachingenglishonline.net/definition-of-writing-abillity) explains that “Writing is a way of communicating a message to a reader for a purpose”. Without having good writing skill can lead to misinformation and ambiguous message. Moreover, bad writing skill makes no one will want to read it.

3.2.1 The Purpose of Writing Skill

Writing skill is a skill that helps the learners to gain independence ,comprehensibility, fluency and creativity in writing(retrieved in http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/referencematerials/glossaryofliteracyterms/whateverwritingskills.htm). If learners have mastered this skill, they will be able to write. The other purpose of writing is not only the writers can  read what they have written, but also other readers can read and understand their writing.

3.2.2 Writing Descriptive Text

Writing ability is the skill to express idea, thought and feelings to other people in written symbols to make other people or readers understand to ideas conveyed(retrieved in http://teachingenglishonline.net/definition-of-writing-ability). Syafei(2009:8) states that ” Descriptive text is a text that describes  particular person, place or thing”. Based on the explanation above, writing descriptive text is the skill to express our idea to describe particular person, place or thing in order to make the readers understand  the ideas conveyed.

3.3 Media

Media is a various means of communication for example television ,radio and newspaper(retrieved in http://www.howtogov/social) . Nowadays media integrates technology, social interaction and content creation to collaboratively connect online information. Through social media people or groups can create, organize ,edit ,comment on, combine and share content to better achieve their mission goals. The social media that are commonly used are facebook,blog,twitter,wikipedia etc. From all kinds of social media, I intend to choose facebook as media to improve the writing descriptive text of senior high school students.

3.4 Facebook

As retrieved (http://www.techterms.com/definition/facebook)  explains that ”Facebook is a social networking website that was originally designed  for college students, but now it is opened  to anyone 13 years old or older”. The key features of facebook are friends, publisher box, homepage, news feed, news ticker ,time online, profile, wall. Facebook users can create and customize their own photos ,video and information about themselves. Each facebook has a ”wall” where friends can post comments. Moreover, if the users want to write personal message, they can send messages through inbox similar with emails.

3.4.1 Facebook as Media of Teaching

Facebook is a media that makes us easy to upload picture, video and send information through wall or inbox. According to Saikew et al(2011) ”Facebook becomes  a supplementary tool for teaching  and learning”. Facebook seems to be one of the most effective  tools or media  because the students generally respond to discussion quickly and they are comfortable  enough in their space  to share their information and opinion”. By using facebook as media of learning, the role of students can be shifted from only receiving knowledge to both searching and sharing their knowledge. Moreover, the interaction with the teachers can become  more instant since the teachers and the students can respond quickly via facebook.

 3.4.2 The Implementation of Facebook in Teaching Writing Descriptive Text

According to Budiardi and Anggraeni(2012:1)”Facebook is a new innovation  in teaching writing in which  the teacher uses it as media of teaching”. The implementation  of facebook as  media of teaching  is as follows:

  1. The teacher explains about the descriptive text and its generic structure.
  2. The students are divided into some groups.
  3. The teacher makes facebook group and let the students in each group to join it. In facebook group , the teacher uploads a picture and asks the students to make descriptive texts based on the picture and clue  given.
  4. The members in their own group upload their works in facebook group.
  5. Doing peer evaluation by giving comments.
  6. Finally, the member of the group corrects the work based on the other friends’ comments in his or her own group. In this case, the teacher also guides the students.

3.4.3 The Advantages of Facebook

According to Munoz and Towner (as cited in Yunus (2012:1)) there are many advantages of using facebook in teaching. They are as follows

  1. Facebook assists the teacher to connect and respond the discussion quickly with their students outside of the classroom,
  2.  If the students find difficulties , they can ask directly to the teacher by sending wall or message in inbox.
  3.  Teacher and students feel comfortable in their space to share their information and opinion and easy to use.
  4. Students’ role can be shifted from only receiving knowledge to both  searching and sharing their knowledge(students centered learning).
  5. It can increase the students’ motivation and build confidence in learning writing.

3.4.4 The Formulation of Hypothesis

The formulation of hypothesis is ”There is a significant difference between the writing descriptive text of the Senior High School students before and after being taught by using facebook”.

 4. Analysis

There are strengths, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages that are faced in doing the study” The Use of Facebook in Teaching Writing Descriptive Text  of Senior High School Students”.

4.1 The Strengths and the Advantages of the Use of Facebook in Teaching Writing Descriptive Text  of Senior High School Students are as follows:

  1. The facebook assists the teachers to connect with their  students outside the classroom and discuss the assignment.
  2. Facebook can increase the motivation of the students ability in writing descriptive text because there are interesting applications in facebook such as completing with picture, video ,links etc
  3. The students can ask whenever they want to, because they  can use facebook for 24 hours in a day.
  4. Students’ role can be shifted from only receiving knowledge to both searching and sharing their knowledge(students centered learning).
  5. By facebook, the students can build their confidence in learning writing.
  6. Facebook is easy and comfort to use.
  7. Students can get enough input from facebook and the teacher’s notes can be viewed with chronological order.

4.2 The Weaknesses and Disadvantages of the Use of Facebook in Teaching Writing Descriptive Text  of  Senior High School Students are as follows:

  1. It is time consuming.
  1. The students must have access to computer and internet. Hence, when technology is not reliable  or the internet is not available the students will find difficulties.
  2. The relationship between teacher and students can somehow be tricky in facebook.
  3. It is too open to public
  4. Sometimes, it disturbs personal space

Based on the explanation, I infer that the use of facebook in teaching writing descriptive text of  Senior High School students gives more positive effects rather than negative ones.

5. Summary and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

English has become  a subject  in National Curriculum of formal education from elementary to Senior High School in Indonesia. So English teacher should be able to create the enjoyable learning activities or learning with fun. While for the students are expected to master  four language skills. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking,. Writing is one of the language skills that plays an important role in human life since it enables us to communicate with others especially those who are not present. Without good writing skill can lead to wrong or ambiguous message. In this case, I find the phenomena  related to the writing which happens to Senior High school students. The problem is that the students find difficulties in writing descriptive text. There are many students still perform poorly  in writing a descriptive text and they are uninterested in writing. They are lacked  to practice and the teacher provides less time for teaching writing compared to the other language skills. Moreover , some teachers still used  conventional media in the learning process such as picture and photos. It causes  the students uninterested to join the activities in the class . Based on the reason above, I want to offer a new media to overcome this problem especially in writing descriptive text. By using facebook, I want to help the students in producing descriptive text. Facebook as media to publish students’ writing is proposed to be integrated in teaching writing. Facebook is chosen because it is very popular among the students .So, it can encourage the students to write.

The previous study”Using Facebook to Improve Students’ Achievement in Writing a Descriptive Text at State Senior High Scholl 1 at Karangan, Trenggalek, East Java.It was written by Nurliana(2010) from Malang State University. The result finding of the previous study shows the positive effect of using facebook as media to improve the students’ writing ability in producing descriptive text. There are many advantages of facebook such as the students can respond to the discussion quickly, facebook in learning also helps the students not only for receiving the information but also both searching and sharing. Although  there are  weaknesses in using facebook as media of teaching but it can be anticipated  by some solutions such as to avoid of disturbing personal space, the students must control their behavior.

At last, I would like to suggest the teacher of ICT in language learning ,the English teacher, students, readers and other researchers to use facebook as media in teaching writing because it gives more  positive effects than negative ones.

 

5.2Recommendation

Based on the result of the study, I would like to give suggestion to:

1.      The teacher of ICT in language learning

a)    The teacher should utilize Facebook as a media to publish students’ composition in teaching writing.

b)   The teacher should explore the integration of facebook and other social sites(Twitter, Skype, Myspace) in teaching writing.

c)    The teacher should use facebook to increase the students’ ability in other language skills such as listening because facebook is also completed with video application (upload you tube).

2.      English teacher

The teacher has to explore more attractive teaching media  to help him in teaching writing since writing is quite difficult for students because they have limited practice in their daily life. By having interesting media , the teacher will be easier in conducting an attractive teaching and learning process.

3.      Students

The students have to be more confident, fluent, and creative in expressing their ideas through writing via facebook.

4.      Readers

They can add their knowledge and get new information about facebook as media in teaching writing.

5.      The Other Researchers

They should explore the integration of facebook and other social sites(twitter,skype,myspace etc)in teaching of writing.

 

Bibliography

Budiardi, Alfian Cahyo and Anggraeni, Baity.(2012). Facebook Based Writing Learning as an Innovation Media in Writing Class for Teaching English as Foreign Language of International Conference ICT In Language Learning 5th edition.Malang:University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

Definition of  Facebook. available at http://www.techterms.com/definition/facebook(July 2010)

Definition of  Writing Ability. available at http://teachingenglishonline.net/definition-of-writing-ability/html(12 April 2010)

Nurliana, Yerita.(2010).Using Facebook to Improve Students’ Achievement in Writing a Descriptive Text as State Senior High School 1 at Karangan Trenggalek, East Java. Skripsi is published. Malang:Letters Faculty of Malang State University.

Saikaew et al.(2011).Using Facebook as a Supplementary Tool for Teaching and Learning.Skripsi is published.Thailand: Engineering Faculty of Khon Kaen University.

Syafei, Muh.(2009). Academic Writing I.Kudus:The Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of  Muria Kudus University.

Valentina, Yusnia Srana.(2011). The Reading Comprehension of the Eleventh Year Students of SMA N 1 Bae Kudus in the Academic Year 2010/2011 Taught by Using Facebook.Skripsi is not published.Kudus:Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Muria Kudus University.

What are writing skills.available at http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/referencematerials/glossaryofliteracyterms/whatarewritingskills.html (12 March 2011)

What is Media.available at (http://www.howtogov/social-media/social-media-types) (10 August 2011)

 Yunus, Melor.(2012). Integrating Social Networking Tools into ESL Writing Classroom: Strength and Weaknesses.Skripsi is published.Malaysia:Education Faculty of Malaysia Kebangsaan University.

Anjak Piutang

ANJAK PIUTANG (FACTORING)

A. Pengertian
Anjak piutang (Bahasa Inggris: factoring) adalah suatu transaksi keuangan sewaktu suatu perusahaan menjual piutangnya (misalnya tagihan) dengan memberikan suatu diskon. Ada tiga perbedaan antara anjak piutang dan pinjaman bank. Pertama, penekanan anjak piutang adalah pada nilai piutang, bukan kelayakan kredit perusahaan. Kedua, anjak piutang bukanlah suatu pinjaman, melainkan pembelian suatu aset (piutang). Terakhir, pinjaman bank melibatkan dua pihak, sedangkan anjak piutang melibatkan tiga pihak.
Menurut “Kasmir dalam “Bank dan Lembaga Keuangan lainnya” menjelaskan bahwa anjak piutang atau yang lebih dikenal dengan factoring adalah perusahaan yang kegiatannya melakukan penagihan atau pembelian atau pengambilalihan atau pengelolaan hutang piutang suatu perusahaan dengan imbalan atau pembayaran tertentu dari perusahaan (klien). Kemudian pengertian anjak piutang menurut Keputusan Menteri Keuangan Nomor NO.172/KMK.06/2002 adalah badan usaha yang melakukan kegiatan pembiayaan dalam bentuk pembelian dan atau pengalihan serta pengurusan piutang atau tagihan jangka pendek suatu perusahaan dari transaksi perdagangan dalam dan luar negeri.
Tiga pihak yang terlibat dalam anjak piutang adalah penjual, debitur, dan pihak yang membiayai (factor). Penjual adalah pihak yang memiliki piutang (biasanya untuk layanan yang diberikan atau barang yang dijual) dari pihak kedua, debitur. Penjual selanjutnya menjual satu atau lebih tagihannya dengan potongan atau diskon ke pihak ketiga, suatu lembaga keuangan khusus untuk mendapatkan uang dalam bentuk kas. Debitur akan membayar langsung ke perusahaan pembiayaan dengan jumlah penuh sesuai nilai tagihan.
Agar dapat lebih memahami tentang perjanjian anjak piutang ini maka dapat dilihat dari tiga serangkai hukum yaitu :
1. Subyek hukum dari perjanjian anjak piutang itu tentu saja adalah Penjual, Pembeli dan Perusahaan anjak piutang. Namun penamaan tersebut dirubah dan disesuaikan dengan hakekat anjak piutang. Perusahaan anjak piutang atau dikenal sebagai factor adalah badan usaha yang menawarkan anjak piutang lihat pengertian di atas. Klien adalah pihak yang menggunakan jasa dari anjak piutang (mudahnya adalah pihak yang menjual piutang kepada factor). Penjual atau supplier masuk dalam pengeritan klien. Sementara nasabah atau konsumen merupakan pihak yang mengadakan transaksi dengan klien.
2. Obyek Hukum. Obyek hukum dalam perjanjian ini jelas adalah piutang itu sendiri. Baik itu dijual atau dialihkan atau di urus oleh pihak lain.
3. Peristiwa hukum atau hubungan hukumnya adalah perjanjian anjak piutang, yaitu perjanjian antara perusahaan anjak piutang dengan klien.
B. Kegiatan Anjak Piutang
Perusahaan anjak piutang merupakan jenis perusahaan yang relatif baru dikenal di Indonesia. Secara resmi adalah dengan dikeluarkannya Surat Keputusan Menteri Keuangan Nomor 1251/KMK.013/1998 tanggal 20 Desember 1998, pada hal dibanyak negara lain kegiatan anjak piutang sudah dimulai sejak puluhan tahun lalu.
Kegiatan utama perusahaan anjak piutang adalah pengambilalihan pengurusan piutang suatu perusahaan dengan tanggung jawab tertentu, tergantung kesepakatan dengan pihak kreditur. Usaha-usaha yang dijalankan oleh perusahaan anjak piutang berkaitan dengan pengambilalihan dan pengelolaan piutang suatu perusahaan, tergantung permintaan pihak kreditur.
Bagi perusahaan kreditur dengan adanya perusahaan anjak piutang sangat membantu mereka dalam mengurangi risiko yang dihadapi terhadap macetnya tagihan perusahaan. Disamping itu mereka juga dapat lebih berkosentrasi terhadap kegiatan lain yang lebih strategis di perusahaannya.
Kegiatan perusahaan anjak piutang di Indonesia diatur berdasarkan Surat Keputusan Menteri Keuangan No 1251/KMK.013/1988 tanggal 20 Desember 1988. Berdasarkan Surat Keputusan Menteri Keuangan tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa kegiatan anjak piutang meliputi kegiatan antara lain.
1. Pengambilalihan tagihan suatu perusahaan dengan fee tertentu.
2. Pembelian piutang perusahaan dalam suatu transaksi perdagangan dengan harga yang sesuai dengan kesepakatan.
3. Mengelola usaha penjualan kredit suatu perusahaan, artinya perusahaan anjak piutang dapat mengelola kegiatan administrasi kredit suatu perusahaan sesuai kesepakatan.
Dalam mengelola kegiatan sehari-hari perusahaan anjak piutang seperti halnya perusahaan lainnya juga memiliki tujuan tertentu yaitu mencari keuntungan. Keuntungan yang diperoleh perusahaan anjak piutang antara lain berbagai biaya yang dikenakan terhadap kliennya. Kemudian dari keuntungan tersebut perusahaan anjak piutang dapat menutupi seluruh kegiatan operasionalnya.
Dalam praktinya keuntungan yang diperoleh dari biaya-biaya yang dibebankan kepada kliennya terdiri dari:

a. Jasa Penagihan (Service Charge)
Yaitu biaya yang dibebankan oleh perusahaan anjak piutang kepada kliennya, yang dikenal dengan istilah fee dan besarnya fee dihitung berdasarkan presentase tertentu. Kemudian besarnya fee yang diberikan tergantung dari kesepakatan kedua belah pihak dengan berbagai pertimbangan tertentu.
b. Biaya Administrasi
Yaitu biaya yang diterima oleh perusahaan anjak poiutang setelah melakukan pengelolaan perusahaan kreditor oleh klien dan besarnya tergantung dari kesepakatan yang telah dibuat.
C. Peran Lembaga Keuangan Anjak Piutang Dalam Ekonomi
Kenyataan selama ini banyak sektor usaha yang menghadapi berbagai masalah dalam menjalankan kegiatan usahanya. Masalah masalah tersebut pada prinsipnya berkaitan antara lain: kurang kemampuan dan terbatasnya sumber-sumber permodalan, lemahnya pemasaran sehingga target penjualan tidak tercapai.
Disamping itu perusahaan hanya terkonsentrasi pada usaha peningkatan produksi dan penjualan sedangkan administrasi penjualan termasuk penjualan secara kredit (Piutang) masih terabaikan.
Kelemahan dibidang manajemen pengelolaan piutang menyebabkan semakin meningkatnya kredit macet. Kondisi seperti ini mengancam kontinuitas usaha yang pada gilirannya akan menyulitkan perusahaan dalam memperoleh sumber pembiayaan dari lembaga keuangan.
Beberapa manfaat yang dapat diberikan lembaga anjak piutang dalam rangka mengatasi masalah dunia usaha adalah sebagai berikut:
a. Penggunaan jasa anjak piutang akan menurunkan biaya produksi dan biaya penjualan.
b. Anjak piutang dapat memberikan fasilitas pembiayaan dalam bentuk pembayaran dimuka (Advanced Payment) sehingga akan meningkatkan Crediet standing perusahaan.
c. Kegiatan anjak piutang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan bersaing perusahaan klien karena klien dapat mengadakan transaksi perdagangan secara bebas baik perdagangan dalam negeri maupun perdagangan internasional.
d. Meningkatkan kemampuan klien dalam memperoleh laba melalui peningkatan perputaran modal kerja.
e. Menghilangkan risiko kerugian akibat terjadinya kredit macet karena resiko kredit macet ini dapat diambil alih oleh lembaga anjak piutang.
f. Kegiatan anjak piutang dapat mempercepat proses ekonomi dan meningkatkan pendapatan nasional.
D. Pihak-Pihak yang Terlibat
Dalam kegiatan transaksi perusahaan Anjak Piutang terdapat 3 pihak yang saling berkepentingan. Tanpa keterlibatan ketiga pihak tersebut, maka kegiatan anjak piutang tidak akan berjalan sebagaimana mestinya.
Adapun pihak-pihak yang terlibat dalam kegiatan transaksi anjak piutang adalah:
a. Kreditur atau klien yang menyerahkan tagihannya kepada pihak anjak piutang untuk ditagih atau dikelola atau diambil alih dengan cara dikelola atau dibeli sesuai perjanjian dan kesepakatan yang telah dibuat
b. Perusahaan Anjak Piutang yaitu perusahaan yang akan mengambilalih atau mengelola piutang atau penjualan kredit debiturnya
c. Debitur yaitu nasabah yang mempunyai masalah (Hutang) kepada kreditur.
Untuk lebih jelasnya transaksi yang terjadi diantara ketiga belah pihak yang terlibat dalam kegiatan anjak piutang dapat dilihat pada gambar berikut ini.

1. Kreditur menyerahkan persoalan piutangnya kepada perusahaan anjak piutang baik dengan cara memberitahukan kepada debitur atau tidak.
2. Perusahaan anjak piutang melakukan penagihan kepada debitur sesuai dengan kesepakatan yang telah dibuat dengan kreditur
3. Debitur membayar kepada perusahaan anjak piutang
4. Perusahaan anjak piutang membayar sesuai tanggung jawabnya kepada kreditur sesudah semua persoalan utang piutang diselesaikan.
E. Mekanisme Pembiayaan Lembaga Keuangan Anjak Piutang (Factoring)
Transaksi anjak piutang biasanya diawali dengan negosiasi antara perusahaan (klien) dengan lembaga anjak piutang (factoring) yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan perusahaan dan dengan fasilitas yang disediakan perusahaan anjak piutang. Apabila perusahaan sudah mengetahui kebutuhannya sejak awal maka akan lebih mempermudah dan mempercepat transaksi anjak piutang.
Beberapa fasilitas anjak piutang yang ditawarkan:
1. Berdasarkan Pemberitahuan
a. Undisclosed/ Non Notification Factoring
Adakalanya perusahaan ingin performance bonafiditasnya tetap terjaga dimata pelanggan (debitur) walaupun sebetulnya perusahaan sedang kesulitan dana. Untuk itu pada saat pengalihan piutang maka perusahaan tidak memberitahu pelanggan (debitur) bahwa piutang sudah dialihkan ke perusahaan anjak piutang (factoring). Transaksi anjak piutang ini dinamakan Undisclosed/Non Notification Factoring. Mekanisme transaksi Undisclosed sebagai berikut :
 Terjadi transaksi penjualan secara kredit kepada pelanggan (klien)
 Negosiasi dan kontrak anjak piutang antara perusahaan (klien) dengan lembaga anjak piutang (factoring) dimana perusahaan menyerahkan kopi faktur penagihan piutang dan dokumen terkait lainnya sedangkan dokumen asli tetap dipegang perusahaan.
 Lembaga anjak piutang memberikan pembiayaan maksimal 80% dari nilai faktur.
 Pada saat jatuh tempo perusahaan akan menagih kepada debitur/pelanggan.
 Perusahaan akan mengembalikan pinjaman dana kepada factoring ditambah dengan biaya anjak piutang (service charge/discount charge).
b. Disclosed/ Notification Factoring
Jika perusahaan (klien) setelah memperoleh pembiayaan dari anjak piutang tidak ingin direpotkan oleh tugas menagih kepada debitur maka perusahaan bisa memanfaatkan fasilitas disclosed factoring yaitu segera menyerahkan pengelolaan piutang kepada perusahaan anjak piutang. Mekanisme transaksi ini bisa dijelaskan sebagai berikut :
 Terjadi penjualan secara kredit kepada pelanggan (klien)
 Negosiasi dan kontrak factoring antara perusahaan (klien) dengan lembaga anjak piutang dimana perusahaan menyerahkan faktur penagihan dan dokumen terkait lainnya (dokumen asli).
 Perusahaan memberitahu kepada debitur kalau piutang dan penagihan sudah dialihkan ke lembaga anjak piutang.
 Lembaga anjak piutang memberikan pembiayaan maksimum 80% dari nilai faktur.
 Pada saat jatuh tempo lembaga anjak piutang melakukan penagihan kepada debitur.
 Pelanggan (debitur) membayar tagihan kepada anjak piutang.
 Lembaga anjak piutang menyerahkan sisa dan (20% Nilai faktur) kepada perusahaan (klien) setelah sebelumnya dikurangi biaya administrasi.
2. Berdasarkan Tanggung Jawab
a. With Recourse
Dalam keadaan dimana si debitur tidak mampu untuk melunasi segala kewajibannya, maka resiko kredit tersebut menjadi tanggung jawab pihak si kreditur dan pihak anjak piutang mengembalikan tanggung jawab penagihannya.
b. Without Recourse
Dalam fasilitas ini semua risiko yang tidak terbayar dalam suatu penagihan piutang menjadi tanggung jawab pihak anjak piutang sepenuhnya dan bukan tanggung jawab kreditur.
3. Berdasarkan Pelanggan
a. Full Service Factoring
Merupakan perusahaan anjak piutang yang memberikan semua jenis fasilitas jasa anjak piutang baik dalam jasa pembiayaan maupun jasa non pembiayaan, termasuk fasilitas untuk menanggung risiko terhadap kredit macet.
b. Resource Factoring
Jasa yang diberikan oleh perusahaan anjak piutang meliputi hampir fasilitas semua jasa anjak piutang kecuali proteksi terhadap risiko tidak terbayar tagihannya. Dalam hal ini risiko kredit tetap tetap berada pada kreditur
c. Bulk Factoring
Jasa yang diberikan terhadap kreditur hanyalah fasilitas jasa pembiayaan dan pemberitahuan jatuh tempo pada debitur
d. Maturity Factoring
Dalam perusahaan jenis ini fasilitas jasa yang diberikan kepada kreditur adalah perlindungan kredit yang meliputi pengurusan atas penjualan, penagihan dari debitur dan perlindungan atas piutang dan dalam jenis ini jasa yang diberikan adalah tanpa pembiayaan.
e. Invoice Discounting
Pemberian fasilitas jsa hanyalah untuk yang berbentuk pembiayaan anjak piutang
f. Advance Payment
Transaksi pengalihan piutang dimana pembayarannya dilakukan pada saat jatuh tempo dan besarnya sekitas 80% dari nilai fakturnya.
4. Berdasarkan Wilayah
a. Domestic Factoring
Merupakan perusahaan anjak piutang yang hanya beroperasi di wilayah Indonesia.
b. Internasional Factoring
Merupakan kegiatan anjak piutang yang kegiatannya dapat dilakukan antar negara seperti pembiayaan ekspor-impor
Dalam transaksi anjak piutang terdapat beberapa risiko yang mungkin timbul diantaranya:
a) Pada Undisclosed Factoring ada kemungkinan perusahaan (klien) ingkar janji (wanprestasi) yaitu tidak mengembalikan pinjaman/pembiayaan kepada factoring walaupun perusahaan sudah menerima pembayaran dari debitur sehingga anjak piutang mengalami kerugian.
b) Pelanggan/debitur yang ingkar janji yaitu tidak membayar hutangnya pada saat jatuh tempo sehingga kemungkinan perusahaan atau lembaga anjak piutang yang mengalami kerugian.
Untuk mengatasi risiko tersebut, pada saat kontrak perjanjian dibuat maka perlu ditetapkan pihak yang bertanggung jawab atas penanggungan resiko. Jika debitur tidak dapat memenuhi kewajibannya dan yang menanggung resiko tersebut perusahaan (klien) maka perjanjiannya dinamakan with recourse factoring sedangkan jika lembaga anjak piutang yang menanggung risiko kerugiaannya maka perjanjiannya dinamakan without recourse factoring.
Jika melihat fasilitas-fasilitas yang disediakan lembaga anjak piutang, ternyata usaha anjak piutang lebih dominan kepada pemberian jasa pembiayaan (financing service) atas pengalihan piutang dari klien (perusahaan). Namun demikian lembaga anjak piutang juga memberikan jasa dibidang non pembiayaan (non financing service). Jasa non pembiayaan ini pada dasarnya untuk melayani pengelolaan piutang (kredit) perusahaan klien.
Produk jasa non pembiayaan ini diantaranya :
1. Investigasi kredit (credit investigation) atau analisis kredit yaitu lembaga anjak piutang membantu perusahaan untuk menilai calon customer/debitur.
2. Mengelola administrasi penjualan secara kredit (sales ledger administration/sales accounting).
3. Mengawasi/ memonitor penjualan yang dilakukan klien termasuk menetapkan prosedur penagihan.
4. Memberikan masukan atau mengusahakan cara pengamanan terhadap risiko piutang terutama jika transaksi perdagangan secara internasional (export financing) yang rentan terhadap risiko terjadinya fluktuasi kurs valuta asing.
Dengan memanfaatkan jasa anjak piutang maka perusahaan (klien) tidak perlu membentuk bagian kredit tersendiri dalam organisasi. Lembaga anjak piutang sudah secara otomatis telah melaksanakan fungsi bagian crediet (credit departement) dimana lembaga anjak piutang akan memberikan laporan hasil kerjanya secara periodik kepada perusahaan (klien)
Atas pemanfaatan jasa anjak piutang timbul suatu kewajiban bagi perusahaan (klien) yaitu membayar biaya anjak piutang. Biaya ini terdiri dari:
Service charge yaitu biaya yang dikeluarkan karena klien menggunakan jasa untuk pengelolaan/pembukuan penjualan (sales ledger) dari transaksi penjualan yang dilakukan klien. Besarnya biaya berkisar antara 0,5% – 2,5% tergantung kesepakatan antara anjak piutang dan klien.
Discount charge yaitu biaya yang dikeluarkan karena klien memperoleh pembiayaan (dana tunai) dari lembaga anjak piutang. Besarnya biaya discount charge antara 2% – 3%. Biaya ini juga ditetapkan berdasarkan kesepakatan kedua belah pihak.
F. Keuntungan Lembaga Keuangan Anjak Piutang
Keuntungan anjak piutang bagi perusahaan (klien) secara umum dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut :
1. Perusahaan yang kesulitan/kekurangan dana akan segera memperoleh dana tunai sehingga terdapat aliran kas masuk (cash in flow) yang bisa digunakan untuk modal kerja perusahaan. Aliran kas (cash in flow) akan lebih lancar karena perusahaan tidak perlu menunggu pencairan piutang sampai jatuh tempo.
2. Tugas perusahaan (klien) dalam pengelolaan administrasi penjualan dapat dialihkan ke lembaga anjak piutang karena lembaga ini membantu mengelola administrasi penjualan dan penagihan (sales ledgering and collection service).
3. Perusahaan (klien) tidak ragu dalam penjualan produknya terutama kepada customer baru karena resiko tagihan macet bisa ditanggung bersama dengan lembaga anjak piutang (credit insurance).
4. Anjak piutang dapat memperbaiki sistem penagihan sehingga piutang dapat dibayar tepat saat jatuh tempo dan sebisa mungkin penagihan ini tidak merusak hubungan baik antara perusahaan (klien) dengan pelanggannya (customer).
Keuntungan Anjak piutang menurut Kasmir dalam bank dan lembaga keuangan lainnya. Keuntungan yang diperoleh masing-masing pihak adalah sebagai berikut.
1. Bagi Perusahaan Anjak Piutang
a. Memperoleh keuntungan berupa fee dan biaya administrasi
b. Membantu menyelesaikan pertikaian diantara kreditur dan debitur
c. Membantu manajemen pihak kreditur dalam penyelenggaraan kredit

2. Bagi Kreditur
a. Mengurangi resiko kerugian dengan tertagihnya piutang
b. Memperbaiki sistem administrasi yang semrawut
c. Memperlancar kegiatan usaha
d. Dengan ditagihnya piutang oleh perusahaan anjak piutang, kreditur dapat berkosentrasi keusaha lainnya.
3. Bagi Debitur
Memberikan motivasi kepada debitur untuk segera membayar secepatnya, karena ada rasa malu sehingga berusaha sekuat tenaga membayar dengan berbagai cara.

Daftar Pustaka
Kasmir. 2003. Bank dan lembaga keuangan lainnya. PT RajaGrafindo Persada: Jakarta