SUMMARY OF 3 JOURNAL ARTICLES OF ADVANCED WRITING

NAME             : DINA NOVITA WIJAYANTI

NIM                 : 2003512008

ROMBEL       : 1 REGULER

Lin, L. F. 2010.The Impact of the Retelling Technique on Chinese Students’ English Reading Comprehension. Asian EFL Journal. Vol 12, Pp. 163-191. Available online on http://www.asian-efl-journal.com. Retrieved on  October 7th  2012.

     Lin (2010) conducted a study on the impact of the retelling technique on Chinese Students’ English comprehension. The objective of the study was to examine whether retelling technique can enhance English comprehension among L2 readers especially for Chinese students from Taiwanese University or not. In the context of L2 learning, the teacher could implement best practice for teaching reading in order the L2 learners should not only promote memorizing linguistics symbol but also understand the ideas in the text. In order to reduce memorization, the retelling technique was a technique that the learners can engage in meaning reconstruction by generalizing text information, connecting details and referring to personal prior knowledge. Moreover, by using retelling technique, the students could comprehend and understand the text during reading that may influence what they retell after reading. Therefore, the present study asked participant to use retelling technique and examine how they understood the text during reading. The method  of the study  was quantitative method. The researcher made an experimental study with group. The samples are 2 groups . In the experimental group consisted of 65 students and in control group consisted of 61 students. The experiment and control groups received the same learning content, but the experimental group had the retelling technique, while the control group had conventional technique. The instruments that were used were test in 30 multiple choice and questionnaire that contained 14 items with Likert scale for each item, ( 1=strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree). The result of the study showed that retelling technique was significantly improved the participant’s text comprehension, since the retelling technique could enhance language learners’ ability to comprehend text, focused the readers’ attention on the key content, helped the  learners to distinguish  the main ideas and details in the context. Overall, the retelling technique could be the best enhance learners’ understanding of general concept in text both during and after reading.

Yang, A. 2007. Cultivating a Reading Habit: Silent Reading at School. Asian EFL Journal. Vol 9, Pp. 115-129. Available online on http://www.asian-efl-journal.com. Retrieved on October 7th 2012.

     Yang(2007) conducted a study on cultivating a reading habit: silent reading at school. The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of silent reading activities to the students and teachers in a Chinese school in Hongkong. By applying those activities in the morning for 15 minutes in every school day, it could cultivate students and teachers’ reading habit in order to make the communication ability of them will improve. Moreover, by conducting reading habit for 15 minutes in every school day, it could carry out a strong message to students and teachers to improve the language proficiency. Related to the method of the study,  the instruments were used were questionnaire and interview. In this case, the questionnaire was used twice. In the first questionnaire was conducted in September 2004, all the 36 teachers and the 108 students in total filled out 20 items. The questionnaire had been set on a modified likert-scale( 1= stringly disagree; 2=disagree; 3= agree;4 =strongly agree). The results were compared against in the same questionnaire that conducted in May 2005 by adding 5 items over the year. The second instrument was interview session in the form of audio-taped. The relevant materials were transcribed for reference. The result showed that Cultivating a Reading Habit: Silent Reading at School had a positive influence on their attitudes about reading. Results of the questionnaires and the interviews conducted for teachers and students, indicated that teachers and students saw the role of reading differently. This study concluded that students found it fruitful reading during school time, because it allowed them to cultivate a reading habit, and they could find time to do leisure reading when they grew older. Although there were different expectations of reading between teachers and students, they agreed that reading promoted language proficiency. The implication was that when reading had not been formed as a habit, holding up a book will be considered just part of school work. So ,the right way was doing the reading activity as a habit not as part of school work in order both  the students  and the teachers could  get the enjoyment of reading.

Li, Y.  & Wang, C. 2010 .An Empirical Study of Reading Self Efficacy and the Use of  Reading Strategies in the  Chinese EFL Context. Asian EFL Journal. Vol 12, Pp. 144-162. Available online on http://www.asian_efl_journal.com. Retrieved on October 7th  2012.

      Li and Wang (2010) conducted  a study on  an Empirical Study of  Reading Self Efficacy and the Use of Reading Strategies in the Chinese EFL Context. The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between reading self-efficacy and the use of reading strategies and to find out how the former influenced the latter. In this study, self-efficacy was defined as people judgment of their capabilities to organize and conduct courses of action that required to reach the designed types of performances. While, reading strategy was defined as the conscious procedure that was used by the readers to enhance the text comprehension. Because the objective of this study was to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and the use of reading strategy, so it was an expectation that by conducting this study ,reading self-efficacy gave some positive  influence on the use of reading strategies and that fostering reading self-efficacy could improve the effectiveness. The method related to the participant and the instrument that were used in this study. The participant of the study were sophomore English major in Department of Foreign Languages.. Convenience sampling was used because the first author was a graduate student of the department. The total of the students participated in the study was 139 students. The participants were predominantly female with only 18 male students. The instrument used in this study included two questionnaire: reading self-efficacy questionnaire and the use of reading strategies questionnaire. For the reading self-efficacy questionnaire, there were originally 32 items in this questionnaire, 8 items were used  to measure self-efficacy in reading. While for the use of reading strategies questionnaire, there were 48 items randomly arranged in the questionnaire. The result of this study showed that reading self-efficacy gave some influences on the use of reading strategies and that fostering reading self-efficacy could improve the effectiveness of reading strategies instruction. In addition, reading strategies-highly self-efficacious readers reported significantly more use of reading strategies than those with low self-efficacy. In conclusion, reading self –efficacy was significantly positively related to the use of reading strategies.

FINAL ESSAY OF ADVANCED WRITING

THE USE OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING

TO IMPROVE READING COMPREHENSION OF COLLEGE STUDENTS

Dina Novita Wijayanti

Semarang State University

novita.wijayanti81@yahoo.com

                                                       ABSTRACT

     The paper proposes the implementation of the use of reciprocal teaching to improve reading comprehension of college students. Reading is one of the language skills that gives contribution on language ability. It is an important language skill that must be mastered by the students. It determines whether they understand and comprehend the text or not. In fact, many college students find difficulties in understanding the text because of low comprehension. One of the factors is the lecturer still uses conventional technique to teach reading. As the impact, the students feel boring and they are difficult to understand the text. Based on the explanation above, the aims of the paper are to define the key terms, explain teaching reading, reciprocal teaching as technique of reading comprehension, the implementation of reciprocal teaching in teaching reading comprehension, and teaching reading comprehension for college students.

Key words: Reciprocal Teaching, Reading Comprehension, College Students

INTRODUCTION

       Reading is the language skill that gives contribution on the language ability. It is not only seen as the source of information and pleasurable activity but also as a means to enlarge one’s knowledge of the language. Good reading is reading which keeps the people regular in reading which provides them both pleasure and profit (Patel & Jain, 2008:113). That is the reason, why reading is important skill for people to master it. According to Patel& Jain (2008:113) reading is an active process which consists of recognition and comprehension skills. It means that the language determines whether the students comprehend and understand the text or not. It is the reason, why it is called reading comprehension.

     In college, professor assumes the students to know the word they are reading. What he wants them to do is to extract  the meaning from the text in order  to learn about and comprehend the important ideas, theories, principles, models and other aspect of the content area  he is teaching (Vanderstoop & Pintrich, 2003:170). In fact, many college students find difficulties in understanding the text because of low comprehension. If their reading skill is poor, it means that they will find difficulty in making progress. One of factors is the lecturer still uses the conventional technique to teach reading for example by using Grammar Translation Method. As the impact, the students feel boring and they find difficulties to understand the material given. Because of the reason above, I would like to offer new technique to improve reading comprehension of college students by applying reciprocal teaching technique.

     Reciprocal teaching derives from the theory that reading for getting meaning. It is characterized as dialogue that takes place between the teacher and the students (or student’s leader and members of the group). The technique incorporates four strategies. They are predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing (Carter, 1997:65).

     Based on the explanation above, this article examines the use of reciprocal teaching technique as one of the strategies to improve reading comprehension of college students. This article begins with one concept of teaching reading and continuous with reciprocal teaching as technique to improve reading comprehension of college students.

TEACHING READING

    Reading is one of the important skills that must be mastered by the students both in school and in life. By doing it, the teacher can know whether the students comprehend and understand the text or not. Therefore, the ability to read an comprehend text efficiently is crucial for students especially for English foreign learners. In addition, because of the demanding expectation for academic success in all areas of learning, high school students as English foreign learners need to develop their English reading comprehension (Ahmadi, 2012:2053). That is the reason, why teaching reading is important part of teacher’s job.

Definition of Reading

     Reading is the language ability that gives contribution in teaching learning process. It is important activity in life that one can update knowledge. Besides, it is useful for academic success since it determines whether the students more or less understand what they read (Harmer, 2007:99).

     According to Patel & Jain (2008:113) reading is the skill to understand the meaning of printed words i.e written symbols. It is an active process which consists of recognition and comprehension skills. Good reading is reading which keeps the students regular in reading. It is famous as reading habit. It is useful to help them to get knowledge and pass their leisure time (reading for pleasure).

Purposes of Reading

    There are many reasons why getting the students to read is important part of teacher’s job. In academic setting, almost every major purpose for reading comes into play. It means that the teacher asks the students to read for a variety purposes. According to           Celce-Murcia (2001:187) there are four common purposes of reading. They are to search for information (by doing skimming and scanning), for general comprehension (by reading to understand main ideas and relevant supporting information), to learn new information (when reading the text to get new information) and to synthesis and evaluate information (when reading to evaluate from the multiple texts from the longer chapter) to take a critical position. Every purpose of reading above, has its own way to conduct it. It depends on the need that wants to achieve.

Principles of Reading

     Reading as an activity is not only seen as the source to get information but also as a means to enlarge and update one’s knowledge to get pleasure. To achieve the purpose, someone must follow some principles of reading. According to Harmer (2007:101-102) there are six principles of reading. The first principle is encourage students to read as often as much as possible. It intends that the students to do reading as habit action. The second is students need to engage with what they are reading It means that the students should be involved in joyful reading. The third is encourage students to respond to the content of a text. It shows that the students should be given a chance to respond to the message of the text and show their feelings. The fourth is prediction is a major factor in reading. It shows that before the students are given the full text to read, they should predict what the text talks about by showing a clue from the text. The fifth is matc the task to the topic when using intensive reading texts. It means that the teacher should make good reading task for students. The task is completed with imaginative and challenging activities that can reduce students’ boring. The sixth is good teachers exploit reading texts to the full. It shows that the good educator should guide the students in order the text they read can make sense to them by integrating the reading into interesting lesson sequences.

Types of Reading

     Recognition and comprehension skills are the skills should be carried out in conducting reading. Reading as the active process can be differentiated based on its purpose that wants to achieve.

      According to Patel & Jain (2007:115) there are two types of reading. They are intensive and extensive reading. Intensive reading is a kind of reading to get specific knowledge or information from the text. The type of reading is called text reading or passage reading. It usually takes place in the classroom especially when the teacher asks the students to extract the message from the genre text. While extensive reading is a kind of reading to get pleasure when conducting it. It does not care about the specific information after reading. So, it is called reading for pleasure or joyful reading. It usually takes place outside from the classroom especially when the students have pleasure time. They may read novel, magazines etc.

Reading Comprehension

     Reading with the objective that the students not only read a variety of texts independently but also read with the understanding in order to extract and process the information efficiently is called reading comprehension (Choo, Eng, & Ahmad, 2011:141).  When we discuss about the word ”comprehension”, it means that we talk about competence. Brown (2007:33) states that comprehension involves listening and reading abilities can be equated with competence. In other words, if we discuss about reading comprehension, we also talk about reading competence.

     The students’ reading comprehension is influenced by the extent of overlap between the students’ prior knowledge as the reader and the content of the text (Palinscar & Brown, 1984:118). By mastering reading comprehension, they can engage and gain the better understanding the text and facilitate the creation of meaning during the reading process (Dootlittle et al, 2006:107). In this case, reading comprehension includes in intensive reading since the purpose is to get knowledge or the passage of the text rather than reading for pleasure.

Characters of Good Reader

    Good readers are people who become the active readers, they not only read the text passively, word for word, but they can think about what they are reading and try to make sense out of it (Vanderstoop & Pintrich, 2003:172). In other words, they relate what they already know with their prior knowledge.

    A good reader must use one of the two types of knowledge in reading comprehension. They are systematic and schematic knowledge (Freihat, 2012:280). Systematic knowledge is the knowledge that desires the reader to master the language acquisition. It is important that the reader can read to make sense out of it not word for word. Schematic knowledge is the knowledge that desires the reader to master the content of the text and formal schemata. For example the content area of a text and the routines of language interaction as expressed in the rhetorical structure of language.

    According to Celce-Murcia (2000:188) there are some characters that fluent readers typically do in reading. They are read rapidly for comprehension, recognize words rapidly and automatically, draw on a very large vocabulary, integrate text information with their own knowledge, recognize the purpose  for reading, comprehend the text as necessary, shift purpose to read strategically, use strategies  to monitor  comprehension, recognize and repair miscomprehension, read critically and evaluate information.

Strategies in Reading

    The good readers should understand the strategy   to reach reading goal. They should create reading as the interactive activity. It means that reading can be seen as a kind of dialogue between the reader and the author (Hedge, 2000:188). According to Celce-Murcia (2001:195) the major goal for academic reading instruction is the development of strategic readers. There are nine strategies that are commonly done by the strategic readers in doing reading activities efficiently. They are previewing a text, predicting what will come later in a text, summarizing, using context to maintain comprehension, recognizing text organization, generating appropriate questions about the text, clarifying text meaning, and repairing miscomprehension.

RECIPROCAL TEACHING AS TECHNIQUE OF READING COMPREHENSION

       The term ”reciprocal” describes the nature of interactions since one person acts in response to another (Palinscar & Brown, 1984:5). It is a kind of cooperative learning technique which creates the dialogue between the teacher and the student (or student’s leader and members of the group). It is only through dialogue that critical thinking can be generated and that without communication there is no true education (Meyer, 2010:42). According to Pedro (2007:78) the cooperative structure was guided through reciprocal teaching in order to promote autonomy in learning. Therefore to create the effective application of reciprocal teaching, the teacher should pay attention with the foundations itself. It consists of scaffolding, think aloud, metacognition, and cooperative learning (Ozkuz, 2010:97).

The Origin of Reciprocal Teaching

    According to Omari & Weshah (2010:29) historically, reciprocal teaching was described by Palinscar & Brown (1984) and since then it has been developed and used widely in order to help students who face obstacles in reading comprehension. It means that the origin of the technique is derived from the expectation to help students who find difficulties in understanding the text by applying group discussion. Theoretically, it has its origin in constructivist theory which emphasizes the role of learner and his or her internal drives in getting knowledge, learning for understanding and recognizing meaning.

The Principles of Reciprocal Teaching

     There are four principles of learning and instruction underpin the technique of reciprocal teaching (Brown & Campiane in Seymour & Osana, 2003:328). They are cognitive apprenticeship, theories of scaffolding, the zone proximal development, and propleptic teaching. Cognitive apprenticeship emphasizes the role of leader is as the expert who shows the correct strategy to his or her group members. Theories of scaffolding provides support through modeling, offering guided practices, giving feedback, and encouraging independent work (Ozkuz, 2005:15). Zone of proximal development shows that the teacher’s role as the expert to teach and evaluate the children’s performance. Propleptic teaching shows that the teacher should believe that the students have the ability to accomplish their works as expert learners.

The Components of Reciprocal Teaching

     Reciprocal teaching as a technique encourages the students to make connections between subjects  and to apply their learning to their lives (Abraham & Abraham, 2010:2).

     The way to connect students’ learning to their lives is by applying the four components of reciprocal teaching. They are predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing. Predicting shows how the students predict the content of the text before reading by showing the main titles of the text. To guide the students to predict it, the teacher or the student’s leader may ask ”What do you expect the first paragraph to be about?”. Questioning shows how the students find the important information in the text. The way to help them is the teacher or the student’s leader gives question to them. For example: what is the main idea in first paragraph?.In this case, question strategy is a catalyst for deeper understanding and reinforces summarization (Abraham & Abraham, 2010:6). Clarifying is used to check and monitor the students’ understanding of the text in order to reduce miscomprehension. The utterance that is usually used is “what is the meaning of the sentence?” (Ozkuz, 2010:17). Summarizing has relationship with questioning. Questioning reinforces summarization in order to find out the main ideas of the text, organize them, and understand the relationship between them. For example: ”Can I use my own language to retell the story from the text?”.

The Stages for Applying Reciprocal Teaching

      Reciprocal teaching as technique to teach reading comprehension has its own way when the teacher or the researcher would like to apply it in teaching and learning process. It consists of some stages to apply it.

       Kahree & Crowford in Omari & Weshah (2010:28) state that reciprocal teaching includes the following stages. Firstly, the teacher leads the dialogue, then practices one of the paragraphs in front of the students as the model. The next, the teacher distributes the cards contain the job for every student. After that, the students read a paragraph silently. Then, the whole class takes part in dialogue according to the tasks included in their cards. Finally, the teacher divides the students in group. Each group contains of four members to apply each component in reciprocal teaching technique collaboratively.

The Procedure for Applying Reciprocal Teaching

      After applying the stages of reciprocal teaching, a researcher or the teacher should apply the procedure for applying it (Omari & Weshah, 2010:28-29). The procedures are as the followings.

      The first, the teacher chooses a leader who plays the role as a teacher in front of his or her members, the leader exchanges his role with the other members of the group based on his or her own job. Then, the teacher distributes the text to the group and gives them time to do silent reading. The leader of the group coordinates the task selection in his own group. For example if the leader task is predicting. It means he leads the other friends in his or her group. In other words, he guides them to predict what the text talks about. After the task of the summarizing leader is finished, the teacher distributes questions related to the content of the text to check whether the students comprehend the text or not after applying reciprocal teaching technique.

The Goals of Reciprocal Teaching

      Reciprocal teaching is a cooperative reading strategy engages team of students in predicting, questioning, clarifying and then summarizing passages (Palinscar & Brown in Tsong, 2007:217). Because of the reason, it is an expectation that it can achieve some goals after applying the technique in teaching learning process. There are some goals of reciprocal teaching. They are to improve students’ reading comprehension using four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizing, to scaffold the four strategies by modeling, guiding and applying the strategies while reading, to guide students to think about their own thinking (become meta-cognitive) and reflective in their strategy use, to help students monitor their comprehension using the four strategies, to use the social nature of learning to improve and scaffold reading.

The Advantages of Reciprocal Teaching

    Reciprocal teaching is a research based technique that utilizes the comprehension strategies of predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing (Stricklin, 2011:620). So, it is an expectation that after applies it, the researcher, the teacher, and the students can get the advantages.

       There are three common major advantages of the technique when it applies in teaching and learning process (Tsong, 2007:217). Reciprocal teaching is effective in helping students to improve their ability .It means that it is an effective technique to improve the students’ reading comprehension. The technique is easily understood and mastered by both teachers and students. It means that although the technique consists of four strategies or components, but it can easily be understood both by the teachers and the students.It describes the process of reading as interactive activity .It means that the technique creates a situation whereby the students as the readers interact with the text and produces a dialogue where leader of the group communicates with his or her own members.

TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS

      In college, professor assumes the students to know the words they are reading (Vanderstoop & Pintrich, 2003: 170).  It means that the professor desires them to extract the main point derived from the text. College students must be taught the skills to locate and analyze  complicated information, to solve the problems they encounter while reading and to connect ideas and concepts.

Definition of College Students

     There are types of learners that are divided into young and adult learners. College students is part of adult learners. Students enrolled in college or university are called college students (Nist & Simpson, 2002:1099). For them who become the college students have different way of thinking if we compare with young learners. College students must think more critically and have the ability to connect the ideas in their own thinking (Gruenbaum, 2012: 1080).

Characteristics of College Students

    There are different ways to teach reading either young or adult learners. College students is part of adult learners. So to teach them, the lecturer must pay attention to the characteristics of college students. There are four characteristics of college students when they are commonly conducting reading activities (Nist & Simpson, 2002: 1111). They are students’ prior knowledge that emphasizes in the role of knowledge to relate the content of the text with social and cultural contexts. Students’ metacognitive abilities shows how students relate their self-regulated learning rather than isolation. Students’ motivational level is the important part of learning. If the students have skill, will, and social support, they will get the maximum result for their study. Students’ interest in what they are reading or studying. Interest is key in determining the students’ success in learning. So, if the students have interest in learning, the result will be better than the opposite.

CONCLUSION

     Reciprocal teaching is a cooperative learning instructional technique which creates natural dialogue models and reveals learners’ thinking processes about a shared learning. It is presented in dialogue between the teacher and the students or student’s leader and members of the group. The technique consists of four components. They are predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing in the form of group discussion. Reciprocal teaching is recommended as the  technique to improve reading comprehension since the discoverer Palinscar and Brown created it to improve reading comprehension of their students. As the result, they found that students’ ability to read and understand text developed significantly when they applied it. The target to apply this technique is college students because. They still find difficulties in understanding the text and I curious with their characteristics. They like correlating their prior knowledge with new information. From the explanation above, I would like to suggest to the lecturer  of reading comprehension to use reciprocal teaching  to improve  students’ reading comprehension and to reduce the students be bored in class discussion.

REFERENCES

Abrahams, F., & Abrahams, D. (2010) . The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching on the Development of Musical Understanding in High School Student Members of Performing Ensembles: An Action Research. Research in Music Education, 15(1) ,1-33. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from  www-usr.rider.edu/~vrme/v15n1/visions/Impact of Reciprocal Teaching on Musical Understanding. Abrahams and Abrahams.pdf.

Ahmadi, M. R. (2012) . Reciprocal  Teaching Strategies and Their Impacts on English  Reading Comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(10) , 2053-2060. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/tpls/article/view/tpls021020532060/5538.

Brown, H. D. (2007) . Principles of Language Learning and Teaching , Fifth Edition. New York: Pearson Education Inc.

Carter, C. J. (1997) . Why Reciprocal Teaching?. How Children Learn Journal, 54(6) , 64-68. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar97/vol54/num06/Why-Reciprocal-Teaching%C2%A2.aspx.

Celce-Murcia, M. (2001) . Teaching English as a Second on Foreign Language. London: Heinle and Heinle Thompson Learning.

Choo, T. O. L., Eng, T. K., & Ahmad, N. (2011) . Effects of Reciprocal Teaching Strategies on Reading Comprehension. The Reading Matrix, 11(2) , 140-149. Retrieved on November 8,  2012, from www.readingmatrix.com/articles/april_2011/choo_eng_ahmad.pdf.

Dootlittle, P. E et al. (2006) . Reciprocal Teaching for Reading Comprehension Higher Education: A Strategy for Fostering the Deeper Understanding of Texts. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17(2) , 106-118. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/pdf/IJTLHE1.pdf.

Freihat, S., & Makhzoomi, K. A. (2012) . The Effect of the Reciprocal Teaching Procedure (RTP) on Enhancing EFL Students’ Reading Comprehension Behavior in a University Setting. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science , 2(5) ,  279-291. Retrieved  November 8, 2012, from www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_5_March_2012/34.pdf.

Gruenbaum, E. A. (2003) . Common Literacy Struggles with College Students: Using the Reciprocal Teaching Technique. Journal of College  Reading and Learning, 42(2) , 1079-1082. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Journal-College-Reading Learning/290733179.html.

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Meyer, K. (2010) . Dividing into Reading: Revisiting Reciprocal Teaching in the Middle Years. Literacy Learning: the Middle Years, 18(1), 41-52. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from  eprints.qut.edu.au/38645/1/38645P.pdf .

Nist, S. L., & Simpson, M. (2002) . College Studying. Reading Online, 5(8), 1096-1232. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=handbook/nist/index.html.

Ockuz. L. D. (2005) . Reciprocal Teaching Strategies at Work: Improving Reading Comprehension, Grades 2–6: Videotape Viewing Guide and Lesson Materials. New York : International Reading Association.

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Omari, H. A.,  & Weshah, H. A. (2010) . Using the Reciprocal Teaching Method by Teachers at Jordanian Schools. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15(1) , 26-39. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from www.eurojournals.com/ejss_15_1_03.pdf.

Palinscar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984) . Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension- Fostering and Comprehension-Monitoring Activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2(1) , 117-175. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from people.ucsc.edu/~gwells/Files/Courses_Folder/ED 261 Papers/Palincsar Reciprocal Teaching.pdf.

Patel, M. F., & Jain, P. M. (2008) . English Language Teaching. Jaipur: Sunrise Publishers.

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CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

DINA   NOVITA   WIJAYANTI

2003512008

FIRST REGULER ROMBEL SEMARANG

CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

      In reality, there are many teachers who still use conventional technique. They have the dominant role than students. The students just listen to the explanation and do the assignments from their teachers. As the result, the students are unenjoyably in joining the learning process. As the impact, in some occasions the students are interested in their own ways by applying game or they have chit chat with the other friends. According to Ketter & Arnold(2003: 34) if the teachers do not have  the students’ attention, they will not  be able to teach them. Because of the reasons above, the teachers should use the technique or approach that can create the students’ interest and they enjoy in teaching learning process. In other words, the teachers should use the approach that can explore the interest of the students and can take apart or be active in class. One of the approaches is contextual teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situation and motivates students to make connection.

HISTORY OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

(From Behaviorism to constructivism and CTL)

       In the beginning, contextual teaching and learning approach was derived from the theory of behaviorism and then continued with the theory of constructivism. According to Berns & Ericson (2001:2) behaviorism is teaching and learning theory that was proposed by E.L Thorndike who suggested that learning resulted from links formed between stimuli and response through the application of rewards. It means that learners study behaviorism theory that emphasized in the observable behavior produced by a learner in order to response to the stimuli. The theory was applied in the form of conventional way that emphasized in drill or memorization. Then, a new theory was born that is constructivism in order to response to the behaviorism theory. According to Berns & Ericson (2001:2) in constructivism , students could construct their own knowledge by testing ideas based on the prior knowledge and experience, applying these ideas to a new situation and integrating the new knowledge gained with the pre-existing intellectual construct. In this case, constructivism as learning theory emphasized in the role of students rather than the teacher. In order they can find the solution from their problem that produce students’ critical thinking. This theory consists of authentic learning activity that is conducted in group.

       Both the theory of behaviorism and constructivism include the direct instruction in teaching and learning process. In this case, the positions of behaviorism and constructivism theories related to the development of contextual teaching and learning were behaviorism as a means for measure the students’ observable behaviors when they took apart  in teaching and learning process while constructivism as a way to help them connect the content could be used. That is the reason why CTL has the abbreviation of contextual teaching and learning because it is a learning activity based on life context. Contextual teaching and learning is a learning philosophy that emphasizes the students’ interest and experiences. It provides the means for reaching learning goals that requires higher order thinking skills (Satriani, Emilia, & Gunawan, 2012:11).

DEFINITION OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

      Contextual teaching and learning is an approach of learning that can’t be separated with behaviorism and constructivism theories. It is a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situation and its application to their lives as family, citizen, and workers and engage in the hard work that learning requires (Hudson& Whistler, 2007:1). This theory emphasizes students’ interest and experience (Satriani, Emilia, & Gunawan, 2012:11). Overall, contextual teaching and learning is an approach that focuses on the students’ center. The purpose of the approach is to motivate the learners to take charge of their own learning and to relate between knowledge and its application to the various contexts of their lives (Satriani, Emilia, & Gunawan, 2012:11).

PRINCIPLES OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

     Contextual teaching and learning as one of approaches for teaching and learning has scientific principles. According to Johnson (2002:26) there are 3 principles of it. They are principles of interdependence, the principles of differentiation, and the principles of self-regulation.

Principles of Interdependence

      Human being could not establish intimacy with one another (Johnson, 2002:28). It means that although the approach consists of authentic learning activity that is conducted group, there is no one can intimidate the other’s to follow the certain students. It is a sharing and discussing section when it is conducting in group, so the principle stresses that all of the learners have the interdependence.

Principle of Differentiation

     When the students are different in their creativity, they could be free to explore their individual talents, cultivate their own learning styles, and progress at their own pace(Johnson, 2002:31).It means that contextual teaching and learning approach can be conducted to the students with different characters, talents, and ability. The importance of the principle is how the contextual teaching learning helps the students to explore their own talent and can have a big motivation to study based on their life context.

Principle of Self-Regulation

      Self-regulation means everything is set up, maintained, and recognized by yourself. The principle motivates the students to show all of their potentials. Moreover, it also explores them to get the new talents. The teacher should give them belief by giving responsibility for taking the decision, behavior, choice, plan, solution etc.

COMPONENTS OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

     Contextual teaching and learning also consists of some components that must be conducted as the part of its application. There are seven components of contextual teaching and learning that are useful to gain success in applying it (Wijarwadi, 2008:27).

Constructivism

     From the history of contextual teaching and learning, constructivism is a theory that emphasizes the way how the students construct their own knowledge. It has five steps of learning. They are activating knowledge, acquiring knowledge, understanding knowledge, applying knowledge, and reflecting knowledge.

Inquiry

     The principle shows how learning is conducted by including the process of discovery that needs critical thinking. In this case, knowledge as the part of learning does not get by considering a number of facts but also from stimulating learning that allows the students to find their own material in the real context.

Questioning

     Questioning is one of the parts in teaching learning process. The students’ ask something because they want to know something that they do not know. They are curious to get the answer of their problem. That’s why they ask to the teacher or others.

Learning Community

    Contextual teaching and learning is conducted in group because its purpose is wants the students to have sharing and discussing section without the intimacy of others. The other purpose is the students can help the others who need their help in positive way.

Modeling

     Modeling is derived from the word “model”. Model means example. The component of modeling means the teacher gives example to the students if they find difficulties in real way. For example the English teacher gives the example to pronounce certain words.

 Reflection

      Reflection is the ways of thinking about what the students have learned and thinking about what they have done in the past. In this case, the teacher can do about the information that acquired in the action.

Authentic Materials

      It is important to have assessment for the teacher in order to check whether the students have learned the material or not. The assessment is done in authentic form in order to reduce the students do copy paste to the other friends’ work. According to Ketter & Arnold (2003:36) authentic assessment as a means of documenting content mastery. Assessment is authentic when we direct examine student performance on worthy intellectual task.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

     There are some characteristics of contextual teaching and learning that differentiate with the other approaches. Johnson characterizes it into eight important elements. They are as the followings.

Making Meaningful Connection

The students can learn the materials that make sense to them because the materials itself are gained based on their real life context.

Doing Significant Work

The students could relate what the materials have gained in the school and also in the various contexts that still exist in real world.

Self-Regulated Learning

The purpose of self-regulated learning is to create the students to have learning regularly in order they can get the knowledge as much as possible. It is done because the role of the students in contextual teaching and learning is to find their own material when they are learning.

Collaborating

Collaborating is derived from the word “collaborate”. It means that the characteristic of contextual teaching and learning is to do the group discussion, to have sharing session what they have known with the other friends.

Critical and Creative Thinking

It stresses on how the students can think critically if they find problem in order to gain the best solution. Besides, they can be creative when there is task that needs creativity.

Nurturing the Individual

It stresses that the students still need the help of the other such as from adult people who mostly have more experience than the young. So, the students should respect the adult people.

Reaching High Standard

By relating high standard as the characteristics of contextual teaching and learning, it can motivate the students to have more frequency of studying.

Using Authentic Assessment

The using of authentic assessment is useful in order to get the meaningful purposes. The importance of it for contextualizing the meaningfulness of learning and promoting students’ motivation (Paris & Winograd, 2006:2).

STRATEGY OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

     Related to the application of contextual teaching and learning is the strategy itself. There are five strategies that proposed by Crawford. They are relating, experiencing, applying, cooperating, and transferring. It has the famous abbreviation that is REACT (Satriani, Emilia, & Gunawan, 2012:12-13).Relating means that the strategy intends the students to have the ability to relate the prior and new knowledge to get new understanding.  Experiencing means  the previous strategy involves the role of students to relate the prior and new knowledge. While the position  of teacher is to help them to find  the solution  from the problem by constructing new knowledge with hand on experience. Applying means that the strategy intends the students to use the approach they are engaged in hands on problem solving activities. Cooperating means work together. The students discuss or share with other friends in group. The task which is done in group has significant progress than individually. When the students work individually, they can become frustrated. But, when students cooperate in small group, they can often handle complex problems with little help (Crawford, 2002:2). Transferring is derived from constructivism that intends the students to construct the meaning of something by their own understanding. Related to the word “understanding”, the students who learn with understanding can also learn to transfer knowledge.

APPROACHES FOR IMPLEMENTING CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

     There are some approaches that give contribution when implementing contextual teaching and learning. All of the approaches are the part of the application of CTL to help to achieve the goal of it. According to Berns & Erickson (2001:3) there are five approaches for implementing CTL. The first is problem based learning. It means that the approach wants the students can solve  the problem when they  are learning that integrate skills and concepts from  many contents areas. It can begin with either a real or stimulated problem (Putnam & Leach, 2004:3). The second is cooperative learning. It is done in the form of group discussion where the students can work together with the other friends. It provides opportunity for students to interact with each other and also enables them to gain valuable social skill (Deen & Smith, 2006:16).The third is project based learning. It stresses on the principle of discipline in conducting the investigation to get  the solution  from the problem, and gives opportunity to students to work autonomously. The fourth is service learning. It provides the real practice to develop knowledge through projects and activities. The fifth is work based learning that the activity occurs in the workplace to get the benefit for the students.

CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PRACTICE

    Contextual Teaching and learning as an approach can be applied in some language skills such as speaking and writing. In this case, a qualitative case study research design was conducted by Satriani, Emilia, & Gunawan (2012) to investigate the strategy whether  it can improve the students’ writing ability or not. As the result, the teaching writing by using contextual teaching and learning was successful to improve students’ recount writing skill. Specifically, they showed some improvement on schematic structure, grammar roles and graphic features. Moreover, they are some benefits of contextual teaching and learning when it was applied for increasing students writing skill. They are engaging students in the writing activity, increasing students’ motivation to participate actively in the writing class, helping students to construct their writing, helping students to solve their problems, providing ways for students to discuss or interact with their friends, and helping students to summarize and reflect the lesson. The other research is conducted by Wijarwadi (2008) in the form of experimental study at examining the influence of optimizing of contextual teaching and learning. The result showed that there is significant influence of contextual teaching and learning in teaching speaking.

 COMPARISON OF CONTEXTUAL AND TRADITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS

    According to Blanchard (2010:1) there are some differences between contextual teaching and learning and traditional instruction. Traditional instruction is an instruction that emphasized in conventional way, it still applies the importance of memorization not construction the materials from the real context based on experience. It still stresses in teacher’s role than students. While contextual instruction is in the opposite. There are some comparisons of contextual and traditional instructions.

Traditional Instruction

  1. Relies on rote memory
  2. Typically focused on single subject
  3. Value of information is determined by teacher
  4. Fills students with deposits of information  until needed
  5. Assessment of learning is only for formal academic occasions such as exams.

Contextual Instruction

  1. Relies on spatial memory
  2. Typically integrates multiple subjects
  3. Value of information is based on individual need
  4. Relates information with prior knowledge
  5. Authentic assessment through practical application or solving of realistic problem

 BENEFITS OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Contextual teaching and learning as a concept that helps the teachers and students relate the meaning through prior and new knowledge to get new understanding. So, it is an expectation that the approach can give benefits for teacher and students in teaching learning process. According to Satriani, Emilia, & Gunawan (2012:11) contextual teaching and learning motivates the learner to take a charge of their own learning and to relate between knowledge and its application to the various contexts of their lives. The other benefits are it can produce the process of learning more meaningful because the students can enjoy their own learning by doing the practical activity. The last benefit is it can strengthen students’ memory and understanding of the concept because the students are learning through the material that has taken from their experience and new knowledge. In other words, they relate their prior and new knowledge to get new understanding. So, they will easily remember, recall, and comprehending the material.

CONCLUSION

    Contextual teaching learning is an approach that is done derived from combination of behaviorism and constructivism theories. It includes behaviorism because it also learns the observable behavior produced by the learner to response to the stimuli. While, it includes constructivism since it engages the students to construct the meaning from their prior knowledge then relates it with the new knowledge to get the new understanding. The contextual teaching and learning emphasizes on the role of students than teacher. The materials are gained through the students. In this case, the teacher allows the students to find their own materials in their real contexts .So, they are easily to memorize and understand the materials. Contextual teaching and motivates the students to explore their learning, and talent.

REFERENCES

Berns, R.G., & Erickson, P. M. (2001). Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Students for the New Economy. The Highlighted Zone Research @Work. 2(5).1-8. Available on www.cord.org/uploadedfiles/NCCTE_Highlight05-ContextualTeachingLearning.pdf. Retrieved on November 11th 2012.

Blanchard, A. (2012) . Contextual Teaching and Learning. Available on coe.csusb.edu/faculty/scarcella/siu463/Contextual Learning.htm. Retrieved from January 5th 2013.

Crawford, M. (2002). Contextual Teaching and Learning: Strategies for Creating Constructivist Classroom(Conclusion). Connections. 11(9). 1-6 .Available on http://www.cord.org/uploadedfiles/Teaching Contextually (Crawford).pdf. Retrieved on November 11th 2012.

Deen, I. S., & Smith, B.P .(2006). Contextual teaching and learning practices In the family and consumer sciences curriculum. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences Education. 24 (1).14-27.Available on www.natefacs.org/JFCSE/v24no1/v24no1Shamsid-Deen.pdf. Retrieved on November 4th 2012.

Hudson,C.C., & Whisler, V. R. (2007). Contextual Teaching and Learning for Practitioners. Valdosta. Adult and Career Education of Vadolsta State University. Available on http://www.iiisci.org/journal/cv$/sci/pdfs/e668ps.pdf .Retrieved on November 11th 2012.

Johnson, E.B. (2002). Contextual teaching and learning :what it is and why it is here to stay. London :Routledge Falmer.

Ketter, C.T. & Arnold, J. (2003).” Implementing Contextual Teaching and Learning: Case Study of Nancy, a High School Science Novice Teacher. Final Report. Georgia: Department of Education at University of Georgia. Available  on citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.200.5642&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Retrieved on November 11th 2012.

Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (2006). Preparing Teachers to Use Contextual Teaching and Learning Strategies To Improve Student Success In and Beyond School. Paper. London : Department of Education Project. Available on www.ciera.org/library/archive/2001-04/0104parwin.htm. Retrieved on November 4th 2012.

Putnam, A.R., & Leach, L. (2004). Contextual Teaching with Computer-Assisted Instruction. Paper. Carbondale: Department of Workforce Education and Development. Available on gradworks.umi.com/3304124.pdf. Retrieved on November 4th 2012.

Satriani,I., Emilia, E., & Gunawan, M. H. (2012). Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach to Teaching Writing. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics. 2(1) .10-22. Available on ejournal.upi.edu/index.php/IJAL/article/download/70/36. Retrieved on November 11th 2012.

Wijarwadi, W. (2008). The Effectiveness of Contextual Teaching and Learning in Teaching Speaking. Paper. Jakarta: Undergraduate Program of Syarif HIDAYATULLAH State Islamic University. Available on db4.wikispaces.com/file/view/rc18-THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING IN TEACHING SPEAKING.pdf. Retrieved on November 11th 2012.

CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

DINA NOVITA WIJAYANTI

2003512008

ROMBEL 1

CONSTRUCTIVISM THEORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

       There are several theories that are applied in education such as behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism etc. Many educators especially teachers use the theories in the classroom based on their own roles. Each theory has its own different function and purpose and also has a little bit correlation  with each other, for example behaviorism theory. In this theory, the teaching learning process focuses on the students centered not the teacher’s one. It means that, if the teacher applies it in the classroom, it tends to create the passive students. They just absorb the knowledge from their own teachers.

    Constructivism theory is the response to the behaviorism theory (asiaeuniversity, 2012:106). It means that the role of constructivism theory is in the opposite of behaviorism. The students’ role is to construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. It means that the students construct the meaning of certain thing by assimilating and accommodating through their own experience. It tends to create the active students. While the constructivist teachers encourage and guide the students in order to assess the activities which help them to get  the understanding . The way the teacher guides the students can be conducted through questioning them in order it can create the situation in which the students construct the meaning of thing by themselves. Moreover the function of questioning is to regard the students as the expert learners.

      The other function of constructivism theory is it can create problem solving, if the students find problem, they can discuss with other friends to get the solution. That is the point of view about constructivism theory. The next session will be the description of constructivism through the history, definition, types, principles, implementation in teaching learning process, the characteristics of learning, the characters of learners, strength and weaknesses, differences of constructivism with other theories and the comparison between traditional to the constructivist one.

History of Constructivism

      According to asiaeuniversity (2012:146)”Constructivism is a part of cognitive revolution”. Cognitive revolution is the name of an intellectual movement in the 1950s that began with what are known collectively as the cognitive sciences and increasingly deliberated in the late 1960s. The term ”cognitive revolution” began to be used to take advantage of an analysis of scientific revolution in general that was developed by Thomas Kuhn (Royer, 2005 in the asiaeuniversity, 2012: 146). The cognitive revolution was the response to the behaviorism (asiaeuniversity ,2012:106). As we know that, behaviorism was a theory that based on observable changes in behavior. Moreover, behaviorism was the theory in which central attention was in the teacher’s role. It means that the character of the students in the teaching learning process was passive while the teacher was in the opposite. The students just absorbed the information from the teacher rather than constructed the meaning by their own selves. While, constructivism was a theory to learning in which learners were  provided the opportunity to construct  their own sense of what was being  learned  by building  internal connection or relationship among ideas  and facts  being taught( Brich & Tombari, 1997 as cited in asiaeuniversity,2012: 144).  It means that the character of the students in which the constructivism theory was applied  was  active. The teacher as the facilitator (give little guidance to the students). So, this is the reason why constructivism is a part of cognitive revolution that it becomes the response  to the behaviorism.

      Constructivism primarily is a synthesis of the ideas from philosophy, sociology, psychology and education (Lowenthal & Muth, 2008). According to Kanselaar (2002)”Constructivism is not a single concept but it can involve the following three aspects”. They are epistemological, psychological and educational beliefs. Constructivism as a set of epistemological beliefs that is beliefs about the nature of reality, whether there is an independent reality. Constructivism as a set of psychological beliefs about learningandcognition (e.g that learning involves constructing one’s own knowledge). Constructivismas a set of educational beliefs about  pedagogy (e.g that one should allow the learners to define their own learning objective that knowledge emerges from constructive interaction between the teacher and the students or between collaborating students).  Based on the history of constructivism comes from experts, I can infer that,  in the beginning  constructivism  was derived from some aspects that were  philosophy, sociology, psychology, education and epistemological beliefs. All of the aspects united into a general sense of constructivism that it was  a theory  of learning or making meaning that individuals created their own new understanding  on the basis of an interaction between what they already  know, belief, ideas and knowledge with which they come into contact (Resnick, 1989 in Richardson, 2003).

Definition of Constructivism

     Constructivism is a theory of how learning occurs (Henson, 1996 in asiaeuniversity, 2012:143). It means that this theory determines how learning happens. It is one of the useful learning in which it determines the lives of learners; try to look for their own understanding about something that they are curious to know. The ways to seek can be done through questioning of their knowledge and new discoverers. Constructivism as a learning theory learns about how people learn to construct something in their own understanding by relating the prior knowledge and new information. By doing this, a constructivist learners try to be an active creators.

      Boris &Tombari (1996) in asiaeuniversity (2012:144) stated that constructivism is an approach to learning in which learners are provided the opportunity  to construct their own sense of what is being learned by building internal connection or relationship among ideas and facts being taught. According to Cheeks (1992) in asiaeuniversity (2012:145) humans are not passive information receiver. Humans are active information receivers. They build network of information with their previous information and they assimilate or accommodate new knowledge with the prior information in order to build their own understanding of new information. From the two perceptions from two experts, I can infer that constructivism is a theory to help the learners to construct the meaning of thing. They try to create learners to be active to assimilate what is being learned and prior experience.

    Constructivism as a theory of learning emerged from the work of cognitive psychologist such as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner. With the development of cultural psychology, the two perspectives become dominant. They are individual and social constructivism. Individual constructivism focuses on the construction of meaning inside the person while social constructivism focuses on the construction of meaning among people.

 Types of Constructivism

    Constructivism is a theory of learning to help the learners to construct something based on their own understanding by assimilating prior knowledge and new ones. According to Kanselaar (2002) there are two major constructivist perspectives. They are Jean Piaget from Swiss and Lev Vygotsky from Russia.

1.Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Cognitive Constructivism as individual perspective

   Piaget is a Swiss psychologist who describes knowledge development from a holistic and cognitive perspective, emphasizing that there are many channels that are used to construct understanding e.g reading, listening, exploring, and experiencing (Savery & Duffy,1995).

    Cognitive constructivism developed as a reaction to behaviorist and information processing theories of learning (Lowenthal & Muth, 2008). As the reaction to behaviorist, since constructivism tries to help the students as active learners  while behaviorism is in opposite.  In the information processing, the learner perceives stimuli encodes them into useful information then stores the information for later use while in the constructivism tries to assimilate the previous knowledge and the new one  to be  the current problem solving.  In this case, cognitive constructivism tries to make a situation in which learning as the result of constructing based on individual perspective and his or her previous knowledge.

    The development of the human intellectual can be processed through the process of adaptation and organization. Adaptation is a process of assimilation and accommodation. According to Cynthia et al (2005) the term assimilation occurs in which learners add new knowledge into their existing knowledge framework and accommodation occurs when individuals adjust to new information. In this case, I can infer that assimilation is the way to relate what has already know and prior experience while accommodation to correct the  way relating  to the new information.

   Piaget also organizes scheme to produce the adult mind by using schemata. According to Brynes(1996) in asiaeuniversity (2012: 148) schemata or prior knowledge links organize our experience more efficiently for processing. It is important to produce the effective problem solving. Overall, Piaget’s cognitive constructivism focuses on how the individual processes and relates new information to information that already in mind.

2. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Social Cultural Constructivism (socio-constructivist perspective

    Vygotsky is a Russian psychologist who introduces the constructivism through socio-constructivist perspective. In this case, the theory of Vygotsky emphasized in the learning based on context through the interaction with others. According to Safery & Duffy (1995) constructing understanding through interaction with others in social environments in whichknowledge is to be applied.

    Vygotsky as the expert of constructivism in socio cultural perspectives assumed that the theory came from the theory of language, thought and mediation in social environment. According to Lowenthal & Muth (2008) pure social constructivists believe that learning occurs via construction of meaning in social interaction within cultures and through language. Social constructivism classroom is rooted from Vygotsky’s psychological theory that knowledge is not transferred from teachers to students but constructed in the students’ mind (asiaeuniversity, 2012:152). It means that the social constructivism which rooted from Vygotsky’s perspective can be applied in education field. In this case, the focus of knowledge doesn’t come from teacher to students but how the students can construct by their own selves Here are the list of some characteristics of social constructivism classroom.

à   The goal is emphasized in collaborative meaning.

à   The role of teacher is as facilitator who monitors the students’ thinking

à   The social interaction can occur in classroom

à  The curriculum that is applied in classroom can absorb the interest of the students and then assimilate it with their own cultures.

    From the characteristics of social constructivism, it is important to emphasize to the social environments not within the individual’s mind. Moreover, it is also important that the teacher and peers also have the significant role in the application itself. There are four tools for social constructivism. They are scaffolding, cognitive apprenticeship, tutoring, and cooperative learning (asiaeuniversity,2012: 153-154).

  1. Scaffolding is the technique to increase the students’ competence and to reduce the teacher’s guidance.
  2. Cognitive apprenticeship is the technique where the teacher’s belief about the students’ competence to show the best performance and to create the learning situation as well as possible
  3. Tutoring is the effective technique to help the students’ learning by giving explanation that can be done between an adult and a child or between a more-skilled child and less skilled child.
  4. Cooperative learning is the learning by discussing something in group based on their own experience.

Those are the viewpoint of individual and social cultural constructivism .In the followings are the three primary propositions that characterize constructivism from a cognitive and social viewpoint (Safery & Duffy, 1995).

¶        Cognitive is seen as the tool for sharing the people’s understanding about something that they want to know then they test it.

¶        The goal is to assimilate the people prior knowledge and the new one in order to construct new understanding.

3. Bruner  (Constructivist theory)

    In this case, Jerome Bruner, one of the psychologists of constructivism who supports the cognitive constructivism based on Piaget. It means that Bruner also has the same thinking about individual constructivism that it focuses on how the individual process occurs and it relates new information to information already in the mind. The theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concept based on their current or past knowledge. Moreover, the focus of Jerome Bruner in cognitivist constructivism is in instruction. So, in this case, the role of the instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves. The instructor and the students should engage in active activities.

There are three principles of instruction from Jerome Brunner(Meyer, 1998)

  1. Instruction must be concerned with the experience and the contexts that make the students willing and able to learn (readiness).
  2. Instruction must be structured so that  it can be easily grasped by  the students(spiral organization)
  3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given)

     Bruner also uses discovery learning in translating cognitive constructivism principles in teaching and learning in the classroom. In this case, the teacher presents examples and the students work with the examples until they discover  the interrelationship between the subject structure. Furthermore, Jerome Bruner also emphasizes in the importance of understanding the structure of a subject being studied. Subject structure refers to the fundamental ideas, relationship, or patterns of the fields that connect all of the essential information (asiaeuniversity,2012:149). According to Bruner, learning will be more meaningful, useful and memorable for students if they focus on understanding the structure of the subject if they focus on understanding the structure of the subject being studied.

This is the application of Bruner’s teaching technique in the classroom (asiaeuniversity,2012:149-150)

à Firstly, present examples and non-examples of the concepts that you are teaching

Example: give example that include people, kangaroos, whales, cats, dolphins as examples while non-examples are chicken, fish, penguin

à  Secondly, help students see connections among concepts

Examples: ask questions such as these: what do we call things we eat? Food

                 Use diagrams, outlines and summaries to pint out connections

à   Thirdly, pose a question and let students try to find the answer

       Example: How could the human hand be improved?

 What is the relation between the area of one tile and the area of the whole floor?

à   Fourthly, encourage students to make intuitive guesses

Example: Instead of giving a word’s definition, say,” Let’s guess what it might mean by looking at the words around it.

The Principles of Constructivism

   There are some principles of constructivism that must be paid attention in applying this theory in teaching learning process ( Simon, 1990)

1. Knowledge is actively constructed by the individual.

It means that knowledge is seen or viewed as learning in how the learners construct the meaning of something that can make sense to them. In other words, it creates the learners as active creators.

2. Learning is both an individual and a social process.

We find the meaning of learning through the interaction with others in natural contexts.

3. Learning is a self-regulated process

Individual’s learning is determined by the inborn characteristics and external factors that influence them.

4. Learning is an organizational process that enables people to make sense of their world.

Learning is viewed as process to relate the prior knowledge and new one by assimilating and accommodating.

5. Cognition serves the organization of the experiential world, not the ontological reality. Truth as viability, not validity.

In doing the term ”learning” an individual has different ways, perspectives, life and the purpose of it. So, he or she has different result in interpreting the term “learning” that it is based on his or her experience.

6. Reality represents an interpretation.

To construct our understanding of the meaning of certain thing, we can’t separate with the term interpretation.

7. Learning is a socially situated activity that is enhanced in meaningful contexts.

The term “learning” happens in social environments in interaction with others in meaningful context.

8. Language plays an essential role in learning. Thinking takes place in communication.

Language is seen as the tool to connect  with what has been learning with component of language such as words, sentence etc. then combine it in order to create the effective communication.

9. Motivation is a key component in learning.

Motivation  has significant role in learning if the learner has high  motivation in learning , he will  have the better result than the learner doesn’t.

The Implementation of Constructivism in Teaching and Learning Process

     As a theory of learning, constructivism focuses on the implication of “constructing new knowledge for learning” (Lowenthal & Muth, 2008). In this case, constructivism stresses in the center of learners especially for practice and learning rather than the teacher. This theory intends to construct the students’ role in teaching learning process in order the students more active in the class rather than be passive that just absorbed the information from the teacher. Moreover through this theory is expected that the learning environment should emphasize  on students directly, the importance of context, authentic problem and task, discovery learning , student’s prior knowledge, group projects and discussion, student’s choice and authentic assessment. There are some applications related of the constructivism approach that can be applied in the classroom in order it can improve the interest of the students in learning as the part of teaching learning process. They are discovery learning, inquiry based learning etc.

Discovery Learning

    Discovery learning is one of the applications of constructivism. According to O’Donnell(1997) “Discovery Learning is an instructional method in which the students are free to work in learning environment with little or no guidance”. This assumption from O’Donnell is also supported by Ryan & Muray (2009) who assume that discovery learning is problem based learning with minimal guidance”. It means that through discovery learning the teacher gives opportunity to students to explore their selves by learning through the environment with little guidance from the teacher. There are some structures that must be paid attention in applying discovery learning. They are readiness to learn, intuitive and analytical thinking, motivates for learning. These structures must be moved from basic to advanced step.

Readiness to learn:

Any subject will be useful if the students have readiness to learn through discovery learning.

Intuitive and Analytical Thinking:

 Analytical thinking consists of identifying step and finally find the solution to the problem.

Intuitive thinking is the students find the solution from their problem with little guidance from the teacher.

Motivate for Learning

If the students have motivation for learning, the result will be better than they who do not.

The examples of constructivism when it was conducting in the class are when students are given a math problem and asked to come up with a solution on their own, and when the students are given a scientific problem  and allowed to conduct experiments.

Inquiry Based Learning

     Inquiry based learning also the application of constructivism that can be applied in the classroom. According to Mayer (1997)” particularly inquiry based learning seeks to mediate the learning process and make this kind of cognition an object of classroom instruction”. In inquiry learning the role of the students are as scientist or researcher. It intends to give the position to the students as professional scientist who masters certain science on the authentic inquiry activities. The activities  that include in this learning are formulating questions, designing informative investigations, analyzing patterns , drawing inference, accessing evidence in responding the questions, formulating explanations from evidence, connecting explanations to knowledge and communicating and justifying claims and explanation. Moreover, there are 5 steps in conducting inquiry based learning(Mayer, 1997)

  1. Engagement with a scientific question, event or phenomena connected with their current knowledge, though at odds with their own ideas which motivates them to learn more.
  1. Exploration of ideas through hands on experiences, formulating and testing hypotheses’, problem solving and explaining observations.
  2. Analysis and interpretation of data, idea synthesis, model building and clarification of concepts and explanations with scientific knowledge sources(including teachers)
  3. Extension of new understanding and abilities and application of learning to new situations(transfer)
  4. Review and Assessment of what they have learned and how they have learned it (metacognition).

The Characteristics of Learning in Constructivism Classroom

    According to Seigel (2004) there are some characteristics of learning in constructivism theory. These characteristics are useful especially for students in taking the position in the constructivism situation. They are as follows:

  1. Constructed    => the students learn how to construct the meaning of thing or word through assimilating prior knowledge and new one to get new understanding.
  2. Active             => by studying constructivism, it creates the students become active creators.
  3. Reflective        => the students reflect what they already know to their real life
  4. Collaborative   => constructivism as the theory of learning to construct the meaning of certain word by discussing with the peers or others in group discussion.
  5. Inquiry Based => study of constructivism to find the solution from the problem
  6. Evolving          =>evolving is the temporary way to integrate the knowledge that is already gained to reduce invalidity.

The Characters of Learner in Constructivism Classroom

      According to Can (2007) the other point that must be considered in applying constructivism in classroom is about the characters of the learner itself. In this situation , the teacher must create the character of the learners naturally such as feel responsible for their learning ,have developed awareness .,have developed autonomy,
have developed goals for learning, have developed initiative, use strategies ,accept the complexity of life, respectful to multiple perspectives and world-views, open minded, task oriented, process oriented, self-controlling, realistic, scientific, value generator, holistic, articulate ,flexible, moderate, humanistic, innovative, social
indulging into the experience, self-motivated, self-reflective.

Strength and Weaknesses

     Constructivism is a learning theory which emphasizes in the students’ role than teacher’s .So, as a teacher who wants to apply the constructivism in his or her teaching learning process, he or she must consider the strength and weaknesses of it when it applies in classroom. The weakness of constructivism is where conformity is essential divergent thinking and action  may cause problems. While the strength the learner is able to interpret multiple realities, and  the learner is better able to deal with real life situation. If a learner can problem solve, they may better apply their existing knowledge to a novel situation.(Schuman,1996 in Mergel, 1998).

Differences of Constructivism from other Theories

    Constructivism is a language theory to help the students in constructing something based on their own understanding. It emphasizes in students’ role than the teacher’. It is one of the language theories that gives contribution in education field. In this case, there are some language theories that give contribution to education field beside behaviorism such as cognitivism and constructivism. So, in the followings are the differences among them in order to users of this theory do understand with their own principles (Jung & Orey, 2008).

Constructivism

      It emphasizes on how to construct the meaning of the word or thing based on their  own understanding. It can be done through individual experience and schema. The role of the teacher is to ask the students to learn to construct meaning and to assimilate and accommodate the students’ prior knowledge and the new ones.

Behaviorism

     It stresses on students’ observable behavior to create automatic learning includes the use of instructional cues, practice, and reinforcement. In this case, the role of the teacher in behaviorism theory is determines what type of cues that could produce the desired response, to create conducive situation to reach the target stimuli and to create environmental condition.

Cognitivism

     It stresses on the process happens inside the human mind, acquisition of the language, and internal mental structure. In this case, the role of teacher is to understand the position of the students who have different experience that will influence to the learning outcome, to determine the manners that mostly used and which one is effective to organize the new information, to provide feedback in order to make the new information will be more effective and efficient.

The Comparison Between Traditional to the Constructivist One.

     After compare constructivism with behaviorism and cognitivism. The next is the comparison between traditional and constructivist classroom when we compare from curriculum, teacher, students, materials, and assessment (Brooks and Brooks , 1993)

TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM

a)      Curriculum begins with the parts of the whole. Emphasize basic skills

b)      Strict adherence to fixed curriculum is highly valued

c)      Materials are primarily textbooks and workbooks

d)     Learning is based on repetition

e)      Teachers disseminate  information to students, students are recipients of knowledge

f)       Teacher’s role is directive, rooted in authority

g)      Assessment is through testing, correct answers

h)      Knowledge is seen as inert

i)        Students work primarily alone

CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM

a)      Curriculum emphasizes big concepts, beginning with the whole and expanding to include the parts.

b)      Pursuit of the student questions and interest is valued

c)      Materials include primary sources of material and manipulative materials

d)     Learning is interactive, building on what the student already knows

e)      Teachers have a dialogue with students, helping students construct their own knowledge

f)       Teacher’s role is interactive, rooted is negotiation

g)      Assessment includes student works, observations and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product

h)      Knowledge is seen as dynamic , ever  changing with our experiences

i)        Students work primarily in groups

CONCLUSION

     Constructivism is a theory  of learning in which the learners are provided the opportunity to construct their own sense about  what is being learned  by building the connection through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. This theory is the response to the behaviorism theory that tends to focus in teachers centered while constructivism stresses in students’ centered. In constructivism theory, the students are active in the classroom. The role of teacher is as the facilitator. The way the teacher guides the students can be conducted through questioning. By giving question, it can create the students to conduct the meaning of thing by them.

    There are two types of constructivism. They are cognitive constructivism and social cultural constructivism. Cognitive constructivism was developed by Piaget. He conceptualizes learning as the result of constructing based on individual’s experience and prior knowledge. While social cultural constructivism was developed by Vygotsky. He assumed that constructing understanding through interaction with others in the social environment in which knowledge is to be applied. Although there is different assumption between them, but there is similarity that is both  create the learners to construct the meaning of thing by their own sense by building the connection through experiencing.

    The implementation of constructivism theory can be conducted in several learning such as discovery learning, case based learning, inquiry based learning, problem based learning, and project based learning. Discovery learning is an instructional method in which the students are free to work in learning environment with little or no guidance from the teacher. Inquiry based learning as the other of application of constructivism theory. It emphasizes to the role of the students as scientist or researcher who masters certain science.

    Overall, I can infer that constructivism theory is a good theory to create active students by building the connection between what is being learned and reflecting it through experience. The students will be enjoyable in teaching learning process. Moreover, constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas.

REFERENCES

Asiaeuniversity, 2012. Learning Theories-behaviorism. Chapter Six. Available on http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_6.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Brooks, J.G., & Brooks, M.G.1993. In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms.  Available on file:///E:/theories%20in%20LTL/CONSTRUCTIVISM%20NEW/Theory%20Connections.htm. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Can, T. 2007.Constructivist Learner. Available on http://constructivism.com/category/learning-principles/. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Constructivist Theory(Jerome Bruner). Available on http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.html Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Cynthia,et al. Constructivism. 2003. Available on http://www.education.com/reference/article/constructivism/. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Jung, E.J. & Orey, M. 2008. Comparison of Major Learning Paradigms. Available on www.81bada.myweb.uga.edu/portfolio/comparison.pdf. Accessed on 8 October2012.

Kanselaar, G. 2002. Constructivism and socio-constructivism. Available on igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/fss/2005-0622-183040/12305.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Lowenthal, P., & Muth, R. 2008. Constructivism. In E.F. Provenzo, Jr.(Ed), Encyclopedia of the social and cultural foundations of education. Thosand Oaks, CA:Sage.Available on http://www.patricklowenthal. com/constructivismreprint.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Mayer. 1997. R.E. Discovery Learning. Available on http://www.education.com/reference/article/constructivism/. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Mergel, B. 1998 . Instructional Design & Learning Theory. Available on 15www.a3net.net/elearning/Instructional_design-comparison-mergel.pdf. Accessed on 10 October 2012.

O’Donell. 1997. A. M.  Case Based Study. Available on http://www.education.com/reference/article/constructivism/. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Richardson, V. 2003. Constructivist Pedagogy. Teachers College Record . Vol. 105, Pp. 1623-1640. Available on www.acsu. Buffalo.edu/-cjkerber/website/Richardson.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Ryan, E.R. & Muray. 2009. The Use of Discovery Learning in Athletic Training Education. Available on www.coloradomesta.edu/shared/facprofile/documents/theuseofdiscoverylearningathletictrainingeducation.pdf. Accessed on 31 October 2012.

Savery & Duffy. 1995. What is Constructivism?. Available on http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/brown/brown01_02.pdf ,Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Seigel, S. 2004.CONSTRUCTIVISM IN EDUCATION & LEARNING . http://www.resources.scalingtheheights.com/Constructivism.htm. Accessed on 15 September  2012.

Simon,S. D. 1990. The Principles of Constructivism. Available on faculty.yu.edu.jo/khataybeh/DownloadHandler.ashx?pg=9325d5d3-64dc-4369-8f70-6f96ee7db4a2§ion=d7b9ac61-82df-49f4-9e1f-9ea4772def21&file=مبادىء%20البنائية[1].pdf Accessed on 20 October 2012.

 

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COGNITIVISM THEORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

DINA   NOVITA   WIJAYANTI

2003512008

FIRST REGULER ROMBEL SEMARANG

COGNITIVISM OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

      Sometimes, when someone calls us, we immediately hear it. Then, we give the response from his or her calling. From the phenomenon, unconsciously there is a process happens in our brain or thought. The process is called cognitive theories or cognitivism. According to Mergel (1998) cognitivism is a process based on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used  as to what is happening inside the learner’s mind. Cognitive theories emphasize the children conscious thought (Hebb, 2003:3). From the two definitions, I can infer that a process can be called cognitivism if a process happens in conscious thought(inside the learner’s mind). Here is the explanation of e the development of cognitivism or cognitive revolution.

THE HISTORY OF COGNITIVISM

      Cognitivism as a theory of learning studies about the process occurs inside the learner’s mind has the own history about how it happens or the development of it. The development of cognitivism theory is famous with the term “cognitive revolution”. According to asiaeuniversity (2012:106) the cognitive revolution is the name for an intellectual movement in the 1950s that began with what are known collectively as the cognitive sciences. It began in the modern context of greater interdisciplinary communication and research. Although cognitive psychology emerged in the late  1950s and began to take over as the dominant theory of learning. It wasn’t until the late 1970s that cognitive science began to have its influence on instructional design (Mergel,1998).

      From the assumptions of the two experts, I can infer that the development of cognitivism happened in the 1950s as the dominant theory of learning. Unfortunately, the impact of it in the language learning occurred in 1970s. One of the real impacts is the influence on instructional design. In this case, the development of cognitive theory in psychology is as the response of behaviorism (asiaeuniversity, 2012:106). As we know that, behaviorism is the theory of language learning which emphasize in observable behavior. The answer why cognitivism theory appears as the response of behaviorism theory was because the behaviorist psychologist tried to avoid the use of mental process in our mind. They tried to erase the cognitivism theory. In other words, they just would like to explain something which is observable, not the unobservable one (cognitivism).

FACTORS INFUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVISM

     After we know the history of cognitivism, it is important for us to know the factors influenced the development of it. According to Jordan, Carlite & Stack (2008: 36-37) there are four factors influenced it. They are the development of experimental psychology, the move from on interest in external behaviors to internal brain process, the inadequacy of computer and an interest in artificial intelligence.

Experimental psychology

The factor emphasized in how the memory was laid down by using nonsense syllables and words that was begun in the 1880s by Herman Ebbinghuns.

The Shift from behaviorism to cognitivism

The factor emphasized that not all learning can be explained through observable behaviors, sometimes we find unobservable ones. For example : Rats build up a mental representation or cognitive map of their environment and develop expectations rather than  a set of inflexible links between stimuli and response(Tolman , 1948 in Jordan, 2008:37).

Language Acquisition

The factor showed that the result of contested theories of language acquisition was the evidence of human cognition. In this case language is as the result which is shaped by the stimulus- response.

Computer and Artificial Intelligence

The factor showed the relationship between computers and cognitivism theory. Here, the computer is seen as a process for cognitive function while brain as the computing tool. For example the cognitive theory consists of information processing, input-process –output model.In this case, the position of cognitive learning theory is just the beginning to inform the design of CALL materials (Collentine, 2000:3).

DEFINITION OF COGNITIVISM

    According to Mergel (1998) cognitivism is a cognitivist theory that based on thought process behind the behavior. It means that the theory occurs inside the learners mind consciously. Moreover, it focuses on how people think, how people understand, and how people know (asiaeuniversity, 2012:107).How people think is the theory stresses in how our ways of thinking will impact to the  behavior. How people understand is the theory shows the people’s understanding related to outside world. How people know is the theory shows how the people know phenomenon outside the world. Of course, it derives from the process thatrt happens in human mind.

     An individual ‘s cognition plays a significant and primary role in the development and maintenance of emotional and behavioural responses to life situation (Prendes & Resko). In other words, cognitivist theory as the study of mental process could impact or influence  the individual’s emotion and behavioural responses because it is a process in determining on how person thinks, understands, and knows.

PRINCIPLES OF COGNITIVISM

     Cognitivism involves the study of mental processes such as sensation, perception, attention, encoding, and memory that behaviorists were reluctant to study  because cognition occurs inside the” black box” of the brain (Jordan, Carlite & Stack, 2008:36). In this case, sensation perception, attention, encoding, and memory are the principle of cognitivism. The followings are the explanation of them.

      The first principle is sensation. It shows how the stimuli derived from external stimuli is registered in sensory before it being sent to the following process. The second principle is perception which shows as the process to interpret and make sense something which can be seen through our sense. It consists of pattern recognition, object recognition, bottom up or top down processing, and conscious perception. The third principle is attention which stresses in the concentrating to one thing, that the most importance than the others. It is important to determine the conscious awareness. The fourth principle is encoding as the principle of cognitive theory focuses on the importance of encoding information, after something being perceived and attended to stimuli. The way to encode the information can be done through organizing and then form it in the form of schema. In this case, to encode the information in the form of experience can be conducted through two ways. They are bottom up and top down (Jordan, Carlite, & Stack 2008:43). Bottom up is the way to encode experience by transferring the information that is gained through the external world. It is mediated through attention and perception. While top down is another way to encode experience. It is in the form of action prior knowledge in order to help in interpreting the bottom up. The fifth principle is memory. Memory is the ability to keep and remind the information in our mind. It consists of short term memory, long term memory, and sensory.

      Short term memory consists of limited amount of data and short duration. It is also known as the working memory because it consists of some functions. They are rehearsal (repetition), coding, decision making, and retrieval. The information that can be maintained approximately 5-9 bits. According to Vinci (2000: 18) long term memory can hold a huge  amount of information-facts , data, and rules for how to use and process them and the information can be maintained  for long period. It means that long term memory consists of very large amount of data and very long duration. The way to keep the information can be maintained in this type of memory is by using cues.

THREE IMPORTANT COGNITIVE THEORIES

     Cognitive is a learning theory that emphasized in the process which happens inside the learners. In this case, there are three important types of cognitive theories. They are Piaget’s cognitive development theory, Vygotsky’s socio cultural cognitive theory and the information processing approach.

Piaget’s Cognitive Development (1896-1980)

     Piaget is the famous psychologist from Swiss who describes cognitivism theory in the cognitive developmental theory. According to Hebb(2003: 3) Piaget’s theory states the children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through stages of cognitive development. It means that Piaget described cognitivism in the stage development of children when they are ready to construct the meaning of things through their own understanding which starts from the simple to complex thing. Knowledge and thinking skills provide the substance and tools for cognitive problem solving (Bandura, 1989:9).  There are two processes underlie in cognitive construction. They are organization and adaptation. Organization is important  in order  the children  construct  the meaning of thing which make sense to them by  organizing our experience. For example  we specify the less and important ideas then we connect them. While adaptation is useful when we add the new information in our thinking system  because there is important additional information.

     In this case, adaptation is differentiated into two ways. They are assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation occurs when individuals adjust  to new information (Hebb, 2003:3). For example: Newborns reflexively such everything that touches their lips (assimilation) , but after several months of experience, they construct their understanding of the world differently . They don’t suck fuzzy blanket (accommodation). Piaget developed the cognitive development because he believed  that the children pass the four stages  of cognitive development.

    The first stage is sensorimotor (from birth to about two years of age). In this stage an infant tries to construct the meaning of something that he or she is seeing and hearing. This stage emphasizes in the infant’s motoric action. All the end of the stage, that is two years old babies will have complex sensorimotor than before because they try to desire the meaning of thing in simple symbols. The second stage is preoperational stage (two to seven years of age). In this stage, the children try to represent the world through word, images, and drawing. The third stage is concrete operational stage (seven to eleven years of age). In this stage, the children can use the intuitive thought. It means that they try to learn from concrete to abstract thing. For instance, concrete operational thinkers can’t imagine the step to complete algebra equation which is too abstract for thinking at this stage of development. The fourth stage is operational stage (eleven to fifteen years of age) In this stage, the individuals move beyond concrete experiences and think in abstract and more logical terms. For instance formal operational thinkers are more detail in solving the problems.

Vygotsky’s Socio Cultural Theory 1896-1934)

      Vygotsky is a Russian psychologist who emphasize the cognitivism theory based on the developmental analysis, the role of language, and social relation. According to Hebb( 2003:3) there are three claims of Vygotsky. They are child’s cognitive skills can be understood only when they are developmentally analyzed and interpreted. It means that if someone wants to know the origin and the transformation from beginning to the next, he must take a part in child’s cognitive functioning.

      Vygotsky’s second claim is cognitive skills are mediated by words, language, and forms of discourse which serve as psychological tools for facilitating and transforming mental activity.It means that language is important tool for children in early childhood in order to plan their activities and solve the problems. His third claims described knowledge is situated and collaborative. It means that knowledge occurred in environments through the interaction with others collaboratively.

The information Processing Approach

      According to Hebb (2003:6) the information processing approach emphasizes that individuals manipulate information processing approach is same with cognitive developmental theory by Piaget that emphasizes in the individual’s learning but the information processing approach does not describe development as like stage (Piaget). Green (2003) states that information processing approach involves three basic steps. They are encoding, storage, and retrieval. The information that is gotten must be transferred through three basic memory before it can be stored and retrieved.

     Three basic memories are sensory memory is a type of memory that consists of the important and clear information in order to give signal for the useful ones. Short term memory is a type of memory which is famous as working memory. It has short capability and period of time. There is only 7+-2 pieces of information can be kept there. Long term memory is a type of memory that has very large data and very long duration. To make the information is still keep in long term memory, people usually make mnemonics, creating outline as a tool to keep the meaningful information. According to Siegler (1998) in Hebb (2003:6) a leading expert on children’s information processing. So, he means that the process of transferring information of individual from example people retrieve information. It means that they are thinking.

Bruner

    According to McLeod (2007) Bruner stated that cognitive growth involves interaction between basic human capabilities and culturally invented technologies that serves as amplifiers of these capabilities. It means that Bruner described cognitivism as the process of thinking that occurs in interaction in social environment and also influence the development of technology.  This invented technology not only consists of concrete but also abstract technology. In this case, Bruner agreed with the concept of Vygotsky’s social cognitivism that language serves to mediate between environmental stimuli and individual’s response. The concept of learning through cognitivism theory based on Bruner not only emphasized in concept, categories, and problem solving but also the ability to invent it. According to Bruner, cognitive development is divided into three models of representation. They are as the followings.

Enactive representation (action –based)=> 0-1 year old

In this representation, the children try to learn manipulating object. For example babies’ understanding is that bottle is something that they suck to get milk.

Iconic representation has to do with images and things that can be altered=>1-6 years old

In this representation children try to think the differences between two different situations separately. For example children imagine there is no people in market and there are so many people in market.

Symbolic representation implies using symbols to change knowledge into code=> 7 years old.

In the representation emphasized in the role of encoding to make the explanation more clearly. For example: math variable is typically in mathematics subject.

THE DIFFERENCES OF BEHAVIORISM WITH OTHER THEORIES.

      Cognitivism is a theory of learning studies about the process occurs inside the learner’s. It is one of the language theories that gives contribution in education field. In this case, there are some language theories that give contribution to education field beside behaviorism such as cognitivism and constructivism. So, in the followings are the differences among them in order to users of this theory do understand with their own principles(Jung & Orey, 2008).

Behaviorism

    It stresses on students’ observable behavior to create automatic learning includes the use of instructional cues, practice, and reinforcement. In this case, the role of the teacher in behaviorism theory is determines what type of cues that could produce the desired response, to create conducive situation to reach the target stimuli and to create environmental condition.

Cognitivism

    It stresses on the process happens inside the human mind, acquisition of the language, and internal mental structure. In this case, the role of teacher is to understand the position of the students who have different experience that will influence to the learning outcome, to determine the manners that mostly used and which one is effective to organize the new information, to provide feedback in order to make the new information will be more effective and efficient.

Constructivism

    It emphasizes on how to construct the meaning of the word or thing based on their  own understanding. It can be done through individual experience and schema. The role of the teacher is to ask the students to learn to construct meaning and to assimilate and accommodate the students’ prior knowledge and the new ones.

THE EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION OF COGNITIVE THEORIES

    According to Suharno (2010:60) the cognitive view takes the learner to be an active processor of information. It means that the cognitive theory tries to create the people to be active to think. The implication of cognitive theories in educational field is try to produce the students to find the problem solving.do discovery learning, cognitive strategies, and project based learning.

Problem Based Learning

    The application of the learning is try the students to find the solution of the problem. For example the student conducts a research. It means that he or she must find the solution to solve  the problems of his or her research that consists of identifies the problem, collects and analyzes the data, draws the conclusion. The strength of problem based learning are it focuses on the meaningfulness not the facts, it can improve the students’ initiative, it can improve the students’ learning achievement etc.

Discovery Learning

    Discovery learning is one of the applications of cognitivism . According to O’Donnell(1997) “Discovery Learning is an instructional method in which the students are free to work in learning environment with little or no guidance”. This assumption from O’Donnell is also supported by Ryan & Muray (2009) who assume that discovery learning is problem based learning with minimal guidance”. It means that through discovery learning the teacher gives opportunity to students to explore their selves by learning through the environment with little guidance from the teacher. There are some structures that must be paid attention in applying discovery learning. They are readiness to learn, intuitive and analytical thinking, motivates for learning. These structures must be moved from basic to advanced step.

      From the example of the two types of implication of cognitive theories, the users of the theory must be paid attention to the principles itself. There are six principles of cognitivism theory to improve teaching (Magna publication, 1995).The first principle if information is to be learned, it must first be recognized as important. The second is during learning, learners act on information in ways that make it more meaningful. The third is learners store information in long term memory in an organized fashion related to their existing understanding of the world. The fourth is learners continually check understanding, which results in refinement and revision of what is retained. The fifth is transfer of learning to new contexts is not automatic, but results’-form exposure to multiple application,. The sixth is learning is facilitated when learners are aware of their learning strategies and monitor their use.

STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES

     Cognitivism is a theory of learning studies about the process occurs inside the learner’s. So, as a teacher who wants to apply the cognitivism in his or her teaching learning process, he or she must consider the strength and weaknesses of it when it applies in classroom. The weakness of cognitivism is the learners learn the way to finish the task, but it is not a good way. The  strength is the students are trained to do the task in the same way to produce the students who have  consistency behavior ( Schuman,1996 in Mergel, 1998).

CONCLUSION

     Cognitive theory is learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought process. It is emphasized in the conscious thought. The theory  was born in the 1950s. There are four factors influenced the development of it. They are experimental psychology, the shift from behaviorism to cognition, language acquisition and computer artificial intelligence. In this case, cognitivism is divided into three important cognitive theories emphasize their conscious thoughts. They are Piaget’s cognitive development theory, Vygotsky’s socio cultural cognitive theory, and the information processing approach. All of the types of cognitive theory stress on the important of process that is happening inside  the human’s mind. The application of cognitive theory can be applied through problem based learning, discovery learning, cognitive strategies, and project based learning. Overall the goal of its application is to create the students to be active in teaching learning process.

REFERENCES

Asiaeuniversity, 2012. Learning Theories-behaviorism. Chapter Five. http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_5.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

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McLeod, S. A. 2008. Bruner – Learning Theory in Education. Available on http://www.simplypsychology.org/bruner.html. Accessed on 4 January 2013.

Mergel, B. 1998. Instructional Design & Learning Theory. Available on http://www.a3net.net/elearning/Instructional_design-comparison-mergel.pdf. Accessed on 10 October 2012.

O’Donell. 1997. A. M.  Case Based Study. Available on http://www.education.com/reference/article/constructivism/. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Prendes, A.A.G., & Resko, A.M . 2011. Cognitive-Behavioral Theory. Available on http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40689_2.pdf . Accessed on 4 January 2013.

Ryan, E.R. & Muray. 2009. The Use of Discovery Learning in Athletic Training Education. Available on www.coloradomesta.edu/shared/facprofile/documents/theuseofdiscoverylearningathletictrainingeducation.pdf. Accessed on 31 October 2012.

Suharno. 2010. Cognitivism and Its Implication In The Second Language Learning. Parole Jurnal Linguistik dan Edukasi. 2(1) .Available on ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/parole/article/download/811/697.  Accessed on 31 October 2012.

“Using Cognitive Theories To Improve Teaching”.The Teaching Professor April 1995: 3-4. Used with permission from Magna Publications, 800/433-0499.Available on http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/264.htm. Accessed on 4 January 2013.

Vinci, L.D. 2000. Cognitive Principles and Guidelines for Instruction Available on. www2.physics.umd.edu/~redish/Book/02.pdf. Accessed on 4 January 2013.

DINA   NOVITA   WIJAYANTI

2003512008

FIRST REGULER ROMBEL SEMARANG

BEHAVIORISM OF LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

      As the students of English Education Department, it is important to us to know the kinds of approaches or theories related language teaching and learning. In this case, some approaches have constructed in teaching and learning process. All of the approaches are conducted in teaching learning process in order to get the positive effect for the students and the teacher itself.

    The use of the approach itself is to improve or increase the students’ ability in learning. Although there are some theories that still used some conventional methods that make the students uninterested in joining the teaching learning process. So the role for the teacher is to apply appropriate approach based on the condition of the students in order it can make the students are interested to learn.

    In this case, I discuss about behaviorism that is explained in detail through history of behaviorism, definition of behaviorism, the characteristics of behaviorism, the principles of behaviorism, the strength and weaknesses of behaviorism, the application of behaviorism in ELT, the differences of behaviorism with other theories.

HISTORY OF BEHAVIORISM

    According to Demirezen (1988:135) background of behaviorism growth is basically, behaviorist theory is psychology theory that was founded by J.B Watson as a reaction to traditional grammar. This theory was supported by Lleonard bloomfield, O.N, Mowrer, B.F Skiner and A.W Staats. Behaviorism also grown  in America but it focuses on the importance of verbal behavior.

     The major principles of behaviorist theories the  analysis of human behavior in observable stimulus response interaction as the association between. Thorndike was the discoverer who found the process of behavior and the consequences. There were variety of behaviorism. Skinner is the psychologist who developed operant conditioning that behaviorist theory produced stimulus response. He assumed that all learning occurred because there were reinforcement and reward. While Pavlov assumed that stimulus and response worked together . For example of Pavlov was children learned language behaviorism is as the result of habit formation. Thus, it is clear that the acquisition of learning in infancy is governed the acquisition of other habit.

THE DEFINITION OF BEHAVIORISM

    According to Waltman (2003) Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors. It described as developmental theory that measures observable behaviors produced by a learner’s response to stimuli (Mergel, 1998). From those definitions of behaviorism from two experts, I can infer that behaviorism is a theory that measures observable behavior that are produced by the learner to respond to the stimuli. The response to stimuli can be reinforced with positive and negative feedback to condition the desired behaviors. Reward is the positive feedback that is given to the learners because they can response to the stimuli correctly For example reward can be realized through stickers, treat , food  and shopping, While punishment  is the negative feedback that is given to the learners if they can’t response the stimuli well.  For example for the punishment such as no play time, extra chores and taking away item. There are some of the key consequences of behavior.  The reward can strengthen the behaviors in order the learners can increase the behavior. For instance, giving praise to promote good behavior. While, punishment can decrease the behavior in order the learner don’t want to do it again. For instance, if the child gets extra chores or no recess.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIORISM

    According to Tomic (1993) Behaviorism attempts to describe, explain, and influence behavior. It is important thing that should be described because it is significant thing that must be known by the users of the theory. Without knowing the characteristics, the implementation tends to be less valuable. In this section, I describe the features of behaviorism as the followings.

  1. According to behaviorist, the most important causes of motivation for behaviorism lie outside rather than within the individual.
  2. The dualistic portrayal of mankind which differentiated between mental processes and observable behavior is unproductive.
  3. The scientific study of mankind should be observable.
  4. The explanation about human behavior should be as simple as possible
  5. Man is generally a shallow and imprecise observer of both his own and others behavior.
  6. It is important to include behavioral analysis at the beginning in order to influence the behavior.

THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING OF BEHAVIORISM

    The behaviorism is primarily associated with Pavlov (classical conditioning) in Russia and J.B Watson. While, B.F Skinner in United States (operant conditioning). The two types of possible conditioning that are classical and operant conditionings are explained as follows.

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

       Ivan Pavlov is brilliant Russian behaviorist. He had studied behaviorism for thirty years. So, he was called the father of conditioning theory. He stressed his concept classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is the process of learning. The condition to create classical conditioning should be as natural as possible to produce stimulus which paired with response. According to Waltman (2003) the example of classical conditioning is Pavlov found that providing food to a dog would set off a response by an elevated salivary flow. He controlled the situation by ringing a bell each time food was given to the dog. He discovered that he could make the saliva flows just by ringing the bell, although food was not supplied. The bell, being the secondary stimulus, was so directly connected with the food or primary stimulus that the bell brought about the salivary flow or primary response. The relax was triggered by a new stimulus. He called this   ”a conditioned reflex” (Rippa, 1996 in Waltman, 2003). A learner behavior based on experience became known as “classical conditioning”.

The principles of classical conditioning (Cherry)

  1. Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response  is to be strengthened.
  2. Extinction is when the occurrences  of a conditioned response decrease or disappear
  3. Spontaneous  Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after  a rest period
  4. Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to appear   similar responses after the response has been conditioned.
  5. Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

John B Watson (1878-1958)

     John B Watson was the important contributor to classical behaviorism. He studied the behavior of animals. The approach that was used by John B Watson was influenced by Ivan Pavlov who investigated in classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is the process of reflex learning. Watson’s approach used stimuli to get the conditioned response. For the reason, Watson may describe it as an S-R (Stimuli-Response) called ”reflexes”. He believed than the social environment influenced the dominant of human behavior than genetics. He also considered that he could form the children’s behavior based on his expectation if he could be in charge of children’s surroundings.In his research similar to Pavlov’s experiment with a dog’s digestive. Watson trained a child to fear a rat. When the child came in contact with the rat aloud noise was made and the child was startled. This led to the eventual fear of furry animals. Watson believed that if he could make a child fear a rat, then he could create any situation and response that he desired (Waltman, 2003).

B.F Skinner (1904-1990)

    B.F Skinner is the American behaviorist of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the condition in which we do something because it has certain consequence or impact in the past. In operant conditioning there are two types of reinforcement that are positive and negative. Positive reinforcement shows by giving reward to increase response. While, negative reinforcement shows by giving punishment to decrease response.

     The greatest contribution of B.F Skinner was known his studies of how rewards and punishment influence behavior (Fisher, 202 in Waltman, 2003). He thought that reinforcement will give impact to behavior.  It means that the human behavior is influenced by the previous situation and reinforcement. We should create the positive reinforcement in order to create the desired behavior. Skinner used a tool to observe behavior by testing the situation for operant conditioning experiment. For example in operant conditioning is the mouse pushes the lever then he gets the food as his reward. Because he can achieve his desired  goal, he will do it again order to get the treat. It means that the mouse can response to the stimuli well. So, the mouse can get reward in the form of treat.

Through his experiment, he concluded that behavior could be changed by providing reinforcement based on the desired response that wanted to achieve.

The Principles of Operant Conditioning

   There are some principles of operant conditioning (Demirezeen, 1988:137). All of the principles must be followed of the teacher would like to apply the type behaviorism theory. They are behaviorist theory dwells on spoken language , the written language is dominant than spoken, behaviorist theory  is the habit formation theory of language teaching and learning, reminding us the learning of structural grammar the operant conditioning produces the simple behavior, the result of positive reinforcement is reward while the negative ones is punishment, and the result of learning, from one person to another can be the same if they have the same condition (Demirezen,1998:137).

THE CLASSICAL VS OPERANT CONDITIONING

    There are some differences that differentiated classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is the process of learning. The condition to create classical conditioning should be as natural as possible to produce stimulus which paired with response. While operant conditioning is in the opposite when it is seen based on the principle.  Operant conditioning is the condition in which we do something because it has certain consequence or impact in the past. In operant conditioning there are two types of reinforcement that are positive and negative. Positive reinforcement shows by giving reward to increase response. While, negative reinforcement shows by giving punishment to decrease response. Here are the basic principles between them (Cherry,2008).

Classical conditioning

  • First described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist
  • Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex
  • Focuses on involuntary response and stimulus

Operant conditioning

  • First described  by B.F Skinner, an American psychologist
  • Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior
  • Focuses on  a voluntary behavior and consequence

STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES

   There are some strength and weaknesses of behaviorism. The strength of behaviorism is emphasized in the goal that want to achieve and the own response. The weakness is the learners could find difficulties if there is no stimulus to correct the response. As the impact, they can’t response it. For example a worker who has been conditioned to response to a certain cue at work stops production when an anomaly occurs because they do not understand the system.

APPLICATION OF BEHAVIORISM FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

     Behaviorism gives point of view about how learning happens and teaching influences the process. According to Behavers et al (2002) learning is a persisting change in performance or performance potential that is gained from experience and interaction with the world. With the observable behaviors which can be seen could comprise the foundational principles of the behaviorist approach. There are some considerations when we apply the principles of behaviorism in teaching. They write the behaviorist that is observable and measurable, choose the desired performance, use authentic context to emphasize performance and practice, emphasize in the use of instructional strategies to get the desired skills, and, give reinforcement to get the appropriate feedback.

A.APPLYING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN THE CLASSROOM

    The teacher can apply the principles of behaviorism in the classroom that can be applied through classical and operant conditioning. The key elements in classical conditioning (asiaeuniversity, 95).

  • A teacher uses attractive learning aids
  • Decorate the classrooms
  • Encourage students to work in small group for difficult learning tasks
  • Greet the students and smile at them  when he comes to the classroom
  • Inform  the students clearly  and specifically  the format of quizzes , tests, and examination
  • Make the students understand the rules of the classroom
  • Give time for students to prepare  for and complete the learning tasks.

B.APPLYING OPERANT CONDITIONING IN THE CLASSROOM

    In operant conditioning, the consequences of behavior place changes in the probability that the behavior will occur. Reinforcement and punishment are two main concepts in operant conditioning. The following are some examples on how operant conditioning can be applied in the classroom (asiaeuniversity, 95)

  • Recognize and reinforce positive behaviors and genuine task accomplishment
  • Use various types of reinforcement such as teacher approval (praise, smile, attention and pats on the shoulder)concrete reinforcement(cookies, candies and stationery) and privileges(longer recess time and more time with friends)
  • Reinforce good behaviors and punish bad ones consistently
  • Use schedule of reinforcement, such as surprise rewards, to encourage persistence
  • Use positive punishment as the last option. Use negative punishment such as detention class ,instead.
  • Punish students’ behavior , not their personal qualities.
  • Tell the students which behavior is being punished.

THE DIFFERENCES OF BEHAVIORISM WITH OTHER THEORIES.

    Behaviorism is a language theory to measure the observable behavior. It is one of the language theories that gives contribution in education field. In this case, there are some language theories that give contribution to education field beside behaviorism such as cognitivism and constructivism. So, in the followings are the differences among them in order to users of this theory do understand with their own principles(Jung & Orey, 2008).

Behaviorism

     It stresses on students’ observable behavior to create automatic learning includes the use of instructional cues, practice, and reinforcement. In this case, the role of the teacher in behaviorism theory is determines what type of cues that could produce the desired response, to create conducive situation to reach the target stimuli and to create environmental condition.

Cognitivism

      It stresses on the process happens inside the human mind, acquisition of the language, and internal mental structure. In this case, the role of teacher is to understand the position of the students who have different experience that will influence to the learning outcome, to determine the manners that mostly used and which one is effective to organize the new information, to provide feedback in order to make the new information will be more effective and efficient.

Constructivism

     It emphasizes on how to construct the meaning of the word or thing based on their  own understanding. It can be done through individual experience and schema. The role of the teacher is to ask the students to learn to construct meaning and to assimilate and accommodate the students’ prior knowledge and the new ones.

     There is also an explanation of the differences between behaviorism with other theories(Alzaghoul,2003).Behaviorism as theory of learning creates the students to be passive learners. They just absorb the material given by the teacher. While the teacher tends to be more active than the students since the teacher presents and provides the material and feedback. The other theory is constructivism. It creates the situation where the learners to be active creators. They construct the meaning of word of thing based on their own understanding by assimilation their prior and new knowledge to get the new understanding. The teacher is passive because the students do their personal discovery knowledge

CONCLUSION

    Based on the explanation above related to behaviorism , I can infer that the implementation of that theory itself is like the conventional method where the students tend to be passive in teaching and learning process while the center of the learning is the teacher  since the teacher presents and provides for practice and feedback. The students tend to get reinforcement from the teacher in order the students can do what the teacher’s intend. If the students can response to the teacher’s stimuli correctly , they can get reward such as  stikers, treat , food  and shopping, While punishment  is the negative feedback that is given to the learners if they can’t response the stimuli well.  For example for the punishment such as  no play time, extra chores and taking away item.

Behaviorism overall helps the teacher with her class in many ways. It helps her to have smooth classroom management skills, keep her children to work hard to achieve their highest potential. Through behaviorist theory  ,the students learn how to behave in correct way.

REFERENCES

Alzaghoul, A. F. 2003.The Implication of the Learning Theories on implementing E-Learning Courses.The Research Bulletin of Jordan ACM. Vol 11(11). Pp 27-30. Available on ijj.acm.org/volumes/volume2/issue2/ijjvol2no5.pdf.Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Asiaeuniversity, 2012. Learning Theories-behaviorism. Chapter Four. Available on http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_4.pdf. Accessed on 20 October 2012.

Beavers,et al. 2002 .From Theory to Practice: Behaviorist Principles of Learning and Instruction.. The Office for Teaching and Learning Newsletter.Vol 7.No 2. Available on http://www.otl.wayne.edu/newsltr.html. Accessed on 1 October 2012.

Cherry, K. 2008. John B. Watson Biography. Available on http://psychology.about.com/b/2008/02/09/257235.htm. Accessed on 20 September 2012.

Cherry, K. 2008. B. F. Skinner Biography. Available on http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/bio_skinner.htm. Accessed on 20 September 2012.

Demirezen, D. M . 1988 . Behaviorist Theory and Language Learning Page 3. Available on http://www.efdergi.hacettepe.edu.tr/19883MEHMET%20DEM%C4%B0REZEN.pdf. Accessed on 1 October 2012.

Jung, E.J. and Orey, M. 2008. Comparison of Major Learning Paradigms. Retrieved on www.81bada.myweb.uga.edu/portfolio/comparison.pdf. Accessed on 7 October 2012.

Mergel, B. 1998. Instructional Design & Learning Theory. Available on http://www.a3net.net/elearning/Instructional_design-comparison-mergel.pdf. Accessed on 10 October 2012.

Strandridge, M. 2000 . Behaviorism. Available on http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Behaviorism.htm .Accessed  on 1 October 2012.

Tomic, W. 1993 .Behaviorism and Cognitivism in Education. A Journal of Human Behavior. Vol 30,Pp.34-46. Available on dspace.ou.nl/bitstream/1820/3210/1/BEHAVIORISM AND COGNITIVISM IN EDUCATION.pdf. Accessed  on 1 October 2012.

Waltman, S. 2003 .Behaviorism. Available on http://lionsden.tec.selu.edu/~swaltman/behaviorism.pdf. Accessed  on 1 October 2012.

 

 

Constructivism Theory in Teaching and Learning Process

DINA NOVITA WIJAYANTI

2003512008

ROMBEL 1

                      Constructivism Theory in  Teaching and Learning Process

Introduction

        There are several theories that are applied in education such as Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism etc. Many educators especially teachers use the theories in the classroom based on their own roles. Each theory has its own different  function and purpose and also has  a little bit correlation  with each other, for example behaviorism theory. In this theory , the teaching learning process focuses on the students centered not the teacher’s one. It means that, if the teacher applies it in the classroom, it tends to create the passive students. They just absorb the knowledge from their own teachers. While constructivism theory is the response to the behaviorism theory(asiaeuniversity, 106). It means that the role of constructivism theory is in the opposite of behaviorism. The students’ role is to construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. It means that the students construct the meaning of  certain thing by assimilating and accommodating through their own experience. It tends to create the active students. While the constructivist teachers encourage and guide  the students in order to assess the activities  which help  them to get  the understanding . The way the teacher  guide  the students can be conducted through questioning them in order  it can create  the situation in which the students construct the meaning of thing by themselves. Moreover the function  of questioning is to regard  the students as the expert learners. The other function of constructivism theory is it can create  problem solving, if the students  find problem , they can discuss  with other friends to get the solution. That is the point of view  about constructivism theory . The next session will be the description of constructivism through the history, definition, types, principles, implementation in teaching learning process, the characteristics of learning, the characters of learners, strength and weaknesses, differences of constructivism with other theories and the comparison between traditional to the constructivist one.

History of Constructivism

      According to asiaeuniversity, 146 ”Constructivism is a part of cognitive revolution”. Cognitive revolution is the name of an intellectual movement in the 1950s that began with what are known collectively as the cognitive sciences and increasingly deliberated in the late 1960s. The term ”cognitive revolution” began to be used to take advantage of an analysis of scientific revolution in general that was developed by Thomas Kuhn (Royer, 2005 as cited in the asiaeuniversity, 146). The cognitive revolution was the response  to the behaviorism (asiaeuniversity ,106). As we know that , behaviorism was a theory that based on observable changes in behavior. Moreover, behaviorism was the theory in which central attention was in the teacher’s role. It means that the character of the students in the teaching learning process was passive while the teacher was in the opposite. The students just absorbed the information from the teacher rather than constructed the meaning by their own selves. While, constructivism was a theory to learning in which learners were  provided the opportunity to construct  their own sense of what was being  learned  by building  internal connection or relationship among ideas  and facts  being taught( Brich and Tombari, 1997 as cited in asiaeuniversity, 144).  It means  that the character of the students in which the constructivism  theory was applied  was  active. The teacher as the facilitator (give little guidance to the students). So , this is the reason why constructivism is a part of cognitive revolution that it becomes the response  to the behaviorism.

      Constructivism primarily is a synthesis of the ideas  from philosophy, sociology, psychology and education(Lowenthal and Muth, 2008). While according to Kanselaar, 2002 ”Constructivism is not a single concept  but it can involve the following three aspects”. They are epistemological , psychological  and educational beliefs. Constructivism as a set  of epistemological  beliefs that is beliefs about the nature of reality , whether there is an independent reality.  Constructivism as a set  of psychological  beliefs about  learning and cognition (e.g that learning involves constructing one’s own knowledge). Constructivism as a set of educational  beliefs about pedagogy (e.g that one should allow the learners to define  their own learning objective that knowledge emerges  from constructive interaction between the teacher  and the students or between collaborating students).  Based on  the history of constructivism  comes from experts, I can infer that,  in the beginning  constructivism  was derived from some aspects that were  philosophy, sociology, psychology, education and epistemological beliefs. All  of the aspects united into a general  sense of constructivism that  it was  a theory  of learning or making meaning that individuals created their own new understanding  on the basis of an interaction between what they already  know, belief, ideas and knowledge with which they come into contact (Resnick, 1989 as cited in Richardson, 2003).

Definition of Constructivism

        According to Henson , 1996 as cited in asiaeuniversity,143 ” Constructivism is a theory of how learning occurs” . This definition  of constructivism is useful when learning is viewed as important  to the lives  of learners, since they try  to seek their own understanding and insight about something  that they want to know. Learners will seek meaning via questioning of their own knowledge and new discoveries.  Constructivism was also known  as a theory  about how people learn  since they construct  their own  understanding and knowledge  of the world through experiencing thing and reflection in those experiences. For example: when we find  something new, we have to relate  it with our previous  ideas and experience. It can be done through changing what we believe. It means that we try to be active creators of our own  knowledge. To do this, we must  ask questions, explore and assess what we know. From the point of view of constructivism, I can infer  that constructivism is an approach  to learning in which learners are provided the opportunity  to construct  their own sense of what is being learned by building internal connection or relationship  among the ideas and facts being taught(Boris  and Tombari, 1997 as cited in asiaeuniversity, 144). Moreover, Cheek , 1992 in asiaeuniversity,145 also did agree  with  Boris and Tombari’s perception  by giving his  perspective related to constructivism Humans are not passive information receiver. Humans are  active information receivers, they build network  of information with their previous information and they assimilate or accommodate  new knowledge  with the old information in order to build their own understanding of new information”. Constructivism as a theory of learning  emerged from the work of cognitive psychologist such as Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner. With the development  of cultural psychology, the two perspectives become dominant. They are individual and social constructivism. In individual constructivism focuses on the construction of meaning inside the person  while social constructivism focuses  on the construction  of meaning among people.

Types of Constructivism

       As we know that constructivism is a theory of how learners are encouraged to construct  their own knowledge of what is being learned  by building internal  connections or relationship among the ideas  and facts  being taught.

      According to Kanselaar  (2002) , there are two major constructivist perspectives. They are Jean Piaget from Swiss and Lev Vygotsky  from Russia.

1.    Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Cognitive Constructivism as individual perspective

      Piaget is a Swiss psychologist who describes knowledge development from a holistic and cognitive perspective, emphasizing that there are many channels  that are used to construct understanding e.g reading, listening, exploring and experiencing(as retrieved in www.calpro_online.org/eric/docs/brown01_02.pdf)Cognitive constructivism developed as a reaction to behaviorist and information processing theories of learning( Lowenthal  and Muth, 2008). In the  information processing, the learner perceives stimuli, encodes them into  useful information and then stores the information for later use. The learner  is able to modify  previous knowledge or strategies in order to help  with current problem solving and develop more sophisticated knowledge. Moreover, cognitive constructivism conceptualizes learning as the result of constructing based on individual’s experience and prior  knowledge. The development of human intellect proceeds  through adaptation  and organization. Adaptation  is a process of assimilation and accommodation. According to Cynthia,et al ,the term assimilation  occurs in which learners add new knowledge into their existing knowledge framework and accommodation occurs when individuals adjust to new  information. It means that accommodation happens in order to make right way relates to the new information.Piaget also organizes scheme to produce  the adult  mind by using schemata. According  to Brynes, 1996  as cited in asiaeuniversity, 148 ”Schemata or prior knowledge  links organize  our experience more efficiently for processing. This categorization of information facilitates  the processes of remembrance (recall) and comprehension (understanding). All  of which  make problem solving more productive. Overall,Piaget’s cognitive constructivism focuses on how the individual processes and relates new information  to information that already in the mind.

2. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Social Cultural Constructivism (socio-constructivist perspective

     Vygotsky is a Russian psychologist  who introduces the socio and cultural influences on learning and emphasizes their role in the construction of knowledge. Vygotsky’s social  constructivism model stresses the importance of learning in context. Constructing  understanding through interaction  with others in the social  environments in which knowledge is to be applied(as retrieved in www.calpro_online.org/eric/docs/brown01_02.pdf).  He assumed that constructivism derives from the theories about  language, thought and their mediation by society. Pure social constructivists believe that learning occurs via the construction  of meaning in social interaction within cultures and through  language(Lowenthal and Muth, 2008). While  in social constructivism classroom is rooted  from Vygotsky’s psychological  theory that knowledge is not transferred from teacher to student but constructed in the students’ mind (asiaeunivesity, 152)

Here are the lists of some characteristics  of social constructivism classrooms

  1. An important classroom goal is construction of collaborative meaning
  2. Teachers closely monitor student’s perspective, thinking and feeling.
  3. The teacher and the students are learning and teaching
  4. Social interaction permeates the classroom
  5. The curriculum and the physical contents of the classroom reflect students’ interest and are infused with their culture.

     From the characteristics of social constructivism, it is important  to know  in social and physical contents not within  an individual’s mind. Social constructivism also emphasizes that teacher and peers contribute to students’ learning.

     There are  4 tools for social  constructivism  to be occurred. They are scaffolding, cognitive apprenticeship, tutoring and cooperative learning(as cited in asiaeuniversity , 153-154)

  1. Scaffolding is a technique that involves changing the level of support for learning. As the students’ competences increase, the teacher provides less guidance. The scaffolding provides support when needed.
  2. Cognitive apprenticeship is a technique in which teachers support learner’s understanding and use of culture’s skills. The term apprenticeship underscores the importance of active learning and highlights the situated nature of learning.
  3. Tutoring is a basic cognitive apprenticeship between teacher and learners. Tutoring can take place between an adult and a child or between a more-skilled child and less-skilled child. Tutoring is an effectively ways to helps student, especially those who are not doing well in their subject.
  4. Cooperative learning is learning based on experience or group discussion. Activities in cooperative learning integrate principles from multiple intelligence theory, mas­tery learning, thinking skills and communication skills. Teachers who try to use this technique in their classroom teach­ing have to focus and posses’ high spirit. Students also learn through example meaning by look up to teacher as an idol.

    After having discussion about individual or cognitive and social cultural constructivism, here, I’d like to show the three primary propositions that characterize constructivism from a cognitive and social viewpoint(Safery and Duffy, 1995 as retrieved in www.calpro_online.org/eric/docs/brown01_02.pdf).

  1. Cognitive occurs as people share their understanding with each and test the degree to which they are compatible.
  2. The goal or purpose of investigation influences what is learned and what experiences the learner draws  upon to construct new understandings.
  3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation, either independently or in collaborative groups. Alternative views and additional information enable learners to test  the viability of understandings and to build new propositions that are compatible with those understandings.

3.Bruner   (Constructivist theory )

      In this case, Jerome Bruner, one of  the psychologists of constructivism who supports the cognitive constructivism based on Piaget. It means that Bruner also has the same thinking about individual constructivism that it focuses on how the individual process occurs  and it relates new information to information already in the mind. The theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning  is an active process in which  learners construct new ideas or concept based on  their current or past knowledge. Moreover, the focus of Jerome Bruner in cognitivist constructivism is in instruction. So, in this case, the role  of the instructor should try  and encourage  students  to discover principles by themselves. The instructor and the students should engage  in an active activities.

There are three  principles of instruction from Jerome Brunner(as retrieved in http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.htm)

  1. Instruction must be concerned with the experience and the contexts that make  the students willing and able to learn (readiness).
  2. Instruction must be structured so that  it can be easily grasped by  the students(spiral organization)
  3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given)

     Bruner also uses discovery learning in translating cognitive constructivism principles in teaching and learning in the classroom. In this case, the teacher presents examples and the students work with  the examples until  they discover  the interrelationship between the subject structure. Furthermore, Jerome Bruner also emphasizes in the importance of understanding the structure of a subject being studied. Subject structure  refers to the fundamental ideas, relationship, or patterns of the fields that connect all of the essential information(asiaeuniversity, 149). According to Bruner, learning will be more meaningful, useful and memorable for students if they focus on understanding the structure of the subject if they focus on understanding the structure of the subject being studied.

This is the application of Bruner’s teaching technique in the classroom (as cited in asiaeuniversity,149-150)

-Firstly, present examples and non-examples of the concepts that you are teaching

Example: give example that include people, kangaroos, whales, cats, dolphins as examples while non-examples are chicken, fish, penguin

– Secondly, help students see connections among concepts

Examples: ask questions such as these: what do we call things we eat? Food

                 Use diagrams, outlines and summaries to pint out connections

– Thirdly, pose a question and let students try to find the answer

       Example: How could  the human hand be improved?

  What is the relation between the area of one tile and the area of the whole floor?

-Fourthly, encourage students to make intuitive guesses

Example: Instead of giving  a word’s definition, say,” Let’s guess what it might mean by looking at the words around it.”

The Principles of Constructivism

      There are some principles of constructivism that must be paid attention in applying this theory in teaching learning process (as cited in Simon)

1. Knowledge is actively constructed by the individual.

Learning is not a passive activity. The process of learning takes place when individuals attempt to make sense of the world around them

2.Learning is both an individual and a social process.

Knowledge has a social component—individuals’ interactions with their environment are critical and must not be discounted.

3.Learning is a self-regulated process

Individuals learn at different rates due both to their inborn characteristics (i.e., intelligence) and to the external factors that affect them (i.e., environment, including other people).

4. Learning is an organizational process that enables people to make sense of their world.

Experiences or concepts that are encountered for the first time undergo one of two processes: assimilation, subsuming a new idea into an existing schema (organizational group), or accommodation, creating new schema to contain novel information. This organization and reorganization takes place constantly within the human mind.

5.Cognition serves the organization of the experiential world, not the ontological reality. Truth as viability, not validity.

Because all individuals lead different lives, the purpose of learning is to allow people to organize what they have experienced.

 6. Reality represents an interpretation.

Information is sifted by the individual to create beliefs from interpretations of self-referent information and environmental contingencies. The construction of meaning relies on interpretation.

7. Learning is a socially situated activity that is enhanced in meaningful contexts.

Constructivism emphasizes the role of the other in the learning process

8. Language plays an essential role in learning. Thinking takes place in communication.

For the constructivist, language is a synthetic tool that enables individuals to make connections beyond what has been learned in the past because in the formulation of words, sentences, and paragraphs, learners must organize their thoughts into communicable ideas, a process that often results in knowledge

9. Motivation is a key component in learning.

The most basic motivation for learning is an individual’s desire (need?) to make sense of the world.

The Implementation of Constructivism in Teaching and Learning Process

       As a theory of learning, constructivism focuses on the implication of “constructing new knowledge” for learning (Lowenthal and Muth, 20008). In this case, constructivism stresses in the center of learners especially for practice and learning  rather than the teacher. This theory intends to construct the students’ role in teaching learning process in order the students more active in the class rather than be passive that just absorbed the information from the teacher. Moreover through this theory is expected that the learning environment should emphasize  on students directly, the importance of context, authentic problem and task, discovery learning , student’s prior knowledge, group projects and discussion, student’s choice and authentic assessment. There are some applications related of the constructivism approach that can be applied in the classroom in order it can improve the interest of the students in learning as the part of teaching learning process. They are discovery learning, inquiry based learning etc.

Discovery Learning

      Discovery learning is one of the applications of constructivism. According to O’Donnell “Discovery Learning is an instructional method in which the students are free to work in learning environment with little or no guidance”. This assumption from O’Donnell is also supported by Ryan and Muray, 2009) that assume” discovery learning is problem based learning with minimal guidance”. It means that through discovery learning the teacher gives opportunity to students  to explore their selves by learning through the environment with little guidance from the teacher. There are some structures that must be paid attention in applying discovery learning. They are readiness to learn, intuitive and analytical thinking, motivates for learning. These structures must be moved from basic to advanced step.

-Readiness to learn:

Any subject of material can be taught using discovery learning as long as the student can understand the fundamental concept presented.

-Intuitive and Analytical Thinking:

 Analytical thinking involves proceeding one step at a time, identifying the steps and reaching an answer  to the problem or question. With intuitive thinking, the students arrive at an answer with little if any awareness of the process by which it was reached.

-Motivate for Learning

Short and long term goals be established in a way to show the uninterested students why it is beneficial for them to learn and master the material.

The examples of constructivism when it was conducting in the class are when students are given a math problem and asked to come up with a solution on their own, and when the students are given a scientific problem  and allowed to conduct experiments.

 Inquiry Based Learning

        Inquiry based learning also the application of constructivism that can be applied in the classroom. According to Mayer “ particularly inquiry based learning seeks to mediate the learning process and make this kind of cognition an object of classroom instruction”. In inquiry learning the role  of the students are  as scientist or researcher. It intends to give the position to the students as professional scientist who masters certain science on the authentic inquiry activities. The activities  that include in this learning are formulating questions, designing informative investigations, analyzing patterns , drawing inference, accessing evidence in responding the questions, formulating explanations from evidence, connecting explanations to knowledge and communicating and justifying claims and explanation. Moreover, there are 5 steps in conducting inquiry based learning(Mayer)

  1. Engagement with a scientific question, event or phenomena connected with their current knowledge, though at odds with their own ideas which motivates them to learn more.
  2. Exploration of ideas through hands on experiences, formulating and testing hypotheses’, problem solving and explaining observations.
  3. Analysis and interpretation of data, idea synthesis, model building and clarification of concepts and explanations with scientific knowledge sources(including teachers)
  4. Extension of new understanding and abilities and application of learning to new situations(transfer)
  5. Review and Assessment of what they have learned and how they have learned it (metacognition).

The Characteristics of Learning in Constructivism Classroom

     According to Seigel (2004)there are some characteristics of learning in constructivism theory. These characteristics are useful  especially for students in taking the position in the constructivism situation. They are as follows:

  1. Constructed     => the students come to learn situation with already formulated knowledge, ideas and understanding.
  2. Active              => the student is the person who creates new understanding for himself/herself.
  3. Reflective        => the students control their own learning process and they lead the way by reflecting on their experience.
  4. Collaborative   =>the students learn about learning not only from themselves, but also from their peers because they can pick up strategies and methods from one another.
  5. Inquiry Based  => the students  use inquiry methods to ask questions, investigate a topic and use a variety of resources to find solutions and answers.
  6. Evolving          =>when the students have invalid ideas to explain new experiences. These ideas  are temporary steps in the integration of knowledge.

The Characters of Learner in Constructivism Classroom

     According to Can (2007) the other point that we must consider in applying constructivism in classroom is about the characters of the learner itself. In this situation , the teacher must create the character of the learners naturally as follows

Feel responsible for their learning ,Have developed awareness .,Have developed autonomy,
Have developed goals for learning, Have developed initiative, Use strategies ,Accept the complexity of life, Respectful to multiple perspectives and world-views, Open minded, Task oriented, Process oriented, Self-controlling, Realistic, Scientific, Value generator, Holistic, Articulate ,Flexible, Moderate, Humanistic, Innovative, Social
Indulging into the experience, Self-motivated, Self-reflective.

Strength and Weaknesses

Weaknesses=> in constructivism ,situation where conformity is essential divergent thinking and action  may cause problems.

Strength=>  the learner is able to interpret multiple realities, the learner is better able to deal with real life situation. If a learner  can problem solve, they may better apply their existing knowledge to a novel situation.(Schuman,1996 as cited in Mergel, 1998)

The other Strengths of Constructivism are

  1. Children learn more, and enjoy learning more when they are actively involved, rather than passive listeners
  2. Education works best when it concentrates on thinking and understanding, rather than on rote memorization. Constructivism concentrates on learning how to think and understand.
  3. Constructivist learning is transferable. In constructivist classrooms, students create organizing principles that they can take with them to other learning settings
  4. Constructivism gives students ownership of what they learn, since learning is based on students’ questions and explorations, and often the students have a hand in designing the assessments as well.
  5. Students in constructivist classrooms learn to question things and to apply their natural curiosity to the world.
  6. Constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas.

Differences of Constructivism from other Theories

     The  Differences among Constructivism, Cogntivism and Behaviorism (as cited in Jung and Orey,2008).

Constructivism

It stresses  based on  construction of our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema.

The role of teacher is

(1) To instruct learners on how to construct meaning

(2) To align and design experiences for the learner so that authentic relevant contexts can be experienced. Instructions in constructivism have some characteristics:

(a) An emphasis on the identification of the context in which the skills will be learned and subsequently applied.

(b) An emphasis on learner control and the capability of the learner to manipulate information,

(c) The need for information to be presented in a variety of different ways,

(d) porting the use of problem solving skills that allow learners to go “beyond the information given”

(e) Assessment focused on transfer of knowledge and skills.

Cognitivism

It stresses on acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structure.

The role of teacher  in cognitivism is to

1)Understand that individuals bring various learning experiences to the learning situation which can impact experiences to the learning situation which can impact learning outcomes,

(2) Determine the most effective manner in which to organize and structure new information to tap the learners’ previously acquired knowledge, abilities, and experiences, and

(3) Arrange practice with feedback so that the new information is effectively and efficiently assimilated within the learner’s cognitive structure.

Behaviorism

It stresses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic including the use of instructional cues, practice  and reinforcement.

The role of teacher in behaviorism theory is to

(1) Determine which cues can elicit the desired responses,

(2) Arrange practice situations in which prompts are paired with the target stimuli that initially have no eliciting power but which will be expected to elicit the responses in the natural setting,

(3) Arrange environmental conditions.

The Comparison Between Traditional to the Constructivist One.

      After compare constructivism with behaviorism and cognitivism. The next is the comparison between traditional and constructivist classroom when we compare from curriculum, teacher, students, materials, and assessment(Brooks and Brooks , 1993)

TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM

a)      Curriculum begins with the parts of the whole. Emphasize basic skills

b)      Strict adherence to fixed curriculum is highly valued

c)      Materials are primarily textbooks and workbooks

d)     Learning is based on repetition

e)      Teachers disseminate  information to students, students are recipients of knowledge

f)       Teacher’s role is directive, rooted in authority

g)      Assessment is through testing, correct answers

h)      Knowledge is seen as inert

i)        Students work primarily alone

CONSTRUCTIVIST CLASSROOM

a)      Curriculum emphasizes big concepts, beginning with the whole and expanding  to include the parts.

b)      Pursuit of the student questions and interest is valued

c)      Materials include primary sources of material and manipulative materials

d)     Learning is interactive, building on what the student already knows

e)      Teachers have a dialogue with students, helping students construct their own knowledge

f)       Teacher’s role is interactive, rooted is negotiation

g)      Assessment includes student works, observations and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product

h)      Knowledge is seen as dynamic , ever  changing with our experiences

i)        Students work primarily in groups.

Conclusion

     Constructivism is a theory  of learning in which the learners are provided the opportunity to construct their own sense about  what is being learned  by building the connection through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. This theory is the response to the behaviorism  theory that tends to focus in teachers centered while constructivism  stresses in students’ centered. In constructivism theory, the students are active in the classroom. The role of teacher as the facilitator. The way the teacher guides the students can be conducted through questioning. By giving question, it can create the students to conduct the meaning of thing by themselves. There are two types of constructivism. They are cognitive constructivism and social cultural constructivism. Cognitive constructivism was developed by Piaget. He conceptualizes learning as the result of constructing based on individual’s experience and prior knowledge. While social cultural constructivism was developed by Vygotsky. He assumed that constructing understanding through interaction with others in the social environment in which knowledge is to be applied. Although  there is different assumption between them, but there is similarity that is both  create the learners to construct the meaning of thing by their own sense by building the connection through experiencing.

      The implementation of constructivism theory can be conducted in several  learning such as discovery learning, case based learning, inquiry based learning, problem based learning, and project based learning. Discovery learning is an instructional method in which  the students are free to work in learning environment with little or no guidance from the teacher. Inquiry based learning as the other of application of constructivism theory. It emphasizes  to the role of the students as scientist or researcher  who masters certain science.

         Overall, I can infer that constructivism  theory is a good theory  to create active students by building the connection between what is being learned and reflecting it through experience. The students will be enjoyable in teaching learning process. Moreover, constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas.

References

Asiaeuniversity, 2012. Learning Theories-behaviorism. Chapter Six. Available on http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_6.pdf. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Brooks and Brooks.1993.In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms.  Alexandria, VA: ASCD. file:///E:/theories%20in%20LTL/CONSTRUCTIVISM%20NEW/Theory%20Connections.htm. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Can, T. 2007.Constructivist Learner. http://constructivism.wordpress.com/category/learning-principles/. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Constructivist Theory(Jerome Bruner). Retrieved on http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.html pdf: http:/staff.science.uva.nl. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Cynthia,et al. Constructivism. Available on http://www.education.com/reference/article/constructivism/. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Jung, E.J. and Orey, M. 2008. Comparison of Major Learning Paradigms. Retrieved on www.81bada.myweb.uga.edu/portfolio/comparison.pdf. Accessed on 8/10/2012.

Kanselaar, G. 2002. Constructivism and socio-constructivism. Available on igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/fss/2005-0622-183040/12305.pdf. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Lowenthal, P., and Muth, R. (2008). Constructivism. In E.F. Provenzo, Jr.(Ed), Encyclopedia of the social and cultural foundations of education. Thosand Oaks, CA:Sage.Available on http://www.patricklowenthal. com/constructivismreprint.pdf. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Mayer. R.E. Discovery Learning. Retrieved on http://www.education.com/reference/article/constructivism/. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Mergel, B.1998. Instructional Design & Learning Theory. Available on15www.a3net.net/elearning/Instructional_design-comparison-mergel.pdf. Accessed on 10 October 2012.

O’Donell. A. M.  Case Based Study. Retrieved on http://www.education.com/reference/article/constructivism/. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Richardson, V. 2003. Constructivist Pedagogy. Teachers College Record . Vol 105, Pp. 1623-1640. Available online on www.acsu. Buffalo.edu/-cjkerber/website/Richardson.pdf. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Ryan, E.R.2009. The Use of Discovery Learning in Athletic Training Education.Avalilable on www.coloradomesta.edu/shared/facprofile/documents/theuseofdiscoverylearningathletictrainingeducation.pdf. Accessed on 31 October 2012.

Savery and Duffy. What is Constructivism?. Retrieved on www.calpro_online.org/eric/docs/brown01_02.pdf. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

Seigel, S. 2004. Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved on http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.htmlAccessed on 15/09/ 2012.

Simon,S.D. The Principles of Constructivism. Retrieved on faculty.yu.edu.jo/khataybeh/DownloadHandler.ashx?pg=9325d5d3-64dc-4369-8f70-6f96ee7db4a2§ion=d7b9ac61-82df-49f4-9e1f 9ea4772def21&file=مبادىء%20البنائية[1].pdf. Accessed on 20/10/2012.

 

THE SUMMARY OF 3 ASIAN JOURNALS FOR ADVANCED WRITING TASK

THE SUMMARY OF 3 ASIAN JOURNALS

NAME             : DINA NOVITA WIJAYANTI

NIM                : 2003512008

ROMBEL       : 1 REGULER

Lin, Lu Fang.2010.The Impact of the Retelling Technique on Chinese Students’ English Reading Comprehension. Asian EFL Journal. Vol 12, Pp. 163-191. Available online on http://www.asian-efl-journal.com. Retrieved on  October 7th  2012.

         Lin (2010) conducted  a study on the impact of the retelling technique on Chinese Students’ English comprehension. The objective of the study was to examine whether retelling technique can enhance English comprehension among L2 readers especially for Chinese  students from Taiwanese University. In the context of L2 learning, the teacher can implement best practice for teaching reading in order the L2 learners should not only  promote memorizing linguistics symbol but also understand  the ideas in the text. In order to reduce memorization, the retelling technique was a technique that the learners can engage in meaning  reconstruction by generalizing text information, connecting details  and referring to personal prior knowledge. Moreover,  by using retelling technique, the students could  comprehend and  understand the text during reading that may influence what they retell  after reading. Therefore, the present study asked participant to use retelling technique and examine  how they understood the text during reading. The method  of the study  was quantitative method. The researcher made an experimental study with group. The samples are 2 groups . In the experimental group consisted of 65 students and in control group consisted of 61 students. The experiment and control groups received the same learning content, but the experimental group had the retelling technique, while the control group had conventional technique. The instruments that were used were test in 30 multiple choice and questionnaire that contained 14 items with Likert scale for each item, ( 1=strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree). The result of the study showed that retelling technique significantly improved the participant’s text comprehension, since the retelling technique could enhance language learners’ ability to comprehend text, focused the readers’ attention on the key content, helped the  learners to distinguish  the main ideas and details in the context. Overall , the retelling technique could be the best enhance learners’ understanding of general concept in text both during and after reading.

Yang, Anson.2007. Cultivating a Reading Habit: Silent Reading at School. Asian EFL Journal. Vol 9, Pp. 115-129. Available online on http://www.asian-efl-journal.com. Retrieved on October 7th 2012.

       Yang(2007) conducted a study on cultivating a reading habit: silent reading at school. The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of silent reading activities to the students and teachers in a Chinese school in Hongkong. By applying those activities in the morning for 15 minutes in every school day, it could cultivate  students and teachers’ reading habit in order to make the communication ability of them will improve. Moreover, by conducting reading habit for 15 minutes in every school day, it could carry out a strong message to students and teachers to improve the language proficiency. Related to the method of the study,  the instruments were used were questionnaire and interview. In this case, the questionnaire was used twice. In the first questionnaire was conducted in September 2004, all the 36 teachers and the 108 students  in total filled out 20 items. The questionnaire had been set on a  modified  likert- scale( 1= strongly disagree; 2=disagree; 3= agree;4 =strongly agree). The results were compared against in the same questionnaire  that conducted in May 2005 by adding 5 items over the year. The second instrument was interview session in the form of audio-taped. The relevant materials were transcribed for reference. The result showed that Cultivating a Reading Habit: Silent Reading at School had a positive influence on their attitudes about reading. Results of the questionnaires and the interviews conducted for teachers and students, indicated that teachers and students saw the role of reading differently. This study concluded that students found it fruitful reading during school time, because it allows them to cultivate a reading habit, and they can find time to do leisure reading when they grow older. Although there are different expectations of reading between teachers and students, they agreed that reading promotes language proficiency. The implication was that when reading had not been formed as a habit,  holding up a book will be considered just part of school work. So ,the right way is doing the reading activity as a habit not as part of school work in order both  the students  and the teachers could  get the enjoyment of reading.

Li, Yusfeng  and Chuang Wang.2010.An Empirical Study of Reading Self Efficacy and the Use of Reading Strategies in the  Chinese EFL Context. Asian EFL Journal.Vol 12, Pp. 144-162. Available online on http://www.asian_efl_journal.com.Retrieved on October 7th  2012.

      Li and Wang(2010) conducted  a study on  an Empirical Study of  Reading Self Efficacy and the Use of Reading Strategies in the Chinese EFL Context. The objective of the study was to explore the relationship  between reading self-efficacy and the use of reading strategies and to find out how the former influenced the latter. In this study, self efficacy was defined as people judgement of their capabilities to organize and conduct courses of action that required to reach  the designed types of performances. While, reading strategy was defined as the conscious procedure that was used by the readers to enhance the text comprehension. Because the objective of this study was  to explore the  relationship between self efficacy and the use of reading strategy,  so it was an expectation that by conducting this study ,reading self-efficacy gave some positive  influences on the use of reading strategies and that fostering reading self-efficacy could improve the effectiveness.The method related to the participant and the instrument that were used in this study. The participant of the study were sophomore English major in Department of Foreign Languages. Convenience sampling was used because the first author was a graduate  student of the department. The total of the students participated in the study was 139 students. The participants were predominantly female with only 18 male students. The instrument used in this study included two questionnaire : reading self-efficacy questionnaire and the use of reading strategies questionnaire. For the reading self efficacy questionnaire , there were originally 32 items in this questionnaire , 8 of which were  to measure self-efficacy in reading. While for the use of reading strategies questionnaire, there were 48 items randomly arranged in the questionnaire. The result of this study showed that reading self-efficacy gave some influences on the use of reading strategies and that fostering reading self-efficacy could improve the effectiveness of reading strategies instruction. In addition, reading strategies-highly self-efficacious readers reported significantly more use of reading strategies than those with low self-efficacy. In conclusion, reading self –efficacy  was significantly positively related to the use of reading strategies.